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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. Distinguish between a hydrostatic skeleton, an exoskeleton, and an endoskeleton. Give an example of an animal with each.

2. What advantages and disadvantages does a jointed exoskeleton have over a shell? What advantage does an endoskeleton have over a jointed exoskeleton?

3. What role does cartilage play in the skeletal system?

4. What are the two major components of bone matrix? How do they work together to give bone its characteristics?

5. How is a bone cell nourished?

6. What are the structural differences between spongy bone and compact bone?

7. List four muscle proteins and their functions.

8. How does the muscular system interact with each of the following?

  • a. the nervous system
  • b. the skeletal system
  • c. the circulatory system
  • 9. How do antagonistic muscle pairs move bones? Give an example of such a pair.

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    Additional Questions

    1. List five functions of the human skeleton.

    2. How do bones elongate throughout childhood?

    3. Describe the abnormality in the skeletal and/or muscular system that causes each of the following disorders:

  • a. Tennis elbow.
  • b. Osteoporosis.
  • c. Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
  • d. Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • 4. Define the following terms:

  • a. Sarcolemma.
  • b. Sarcomere.
  • c. Sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  • 5. How does a skeletal muscle cell get ATP?

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