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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. What is a nutrient?

2. How do the circulatory, muscular, nervous, and endocrine systems take part in digestion?

3. What are the digestive products of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats?

4. Identify the part of the digestive system that includes the following:

  • a. ileum, jejunum, duodenum
  • b. cecum, appendix, rectum, anus
  • c. villi and microvilli
  • d. rugae, body, pylorus, cardia, fundus
  • 5. Name an organism that has each of the following:

  • a. extracellular digestion
  • b. intracellular digestion
  • c. a digestive tract with one opening
  • d. a digestive tract with two openings
  • e. filter feeding
  • 6. How does mechanical breakdown of food facilitate chemical digestion?

    7. How is surface area maximized in the stomach and in the small intestine? Why is it necessary for a digestive system to have extensive surface area?

    8. Name the three hormones that are associated with digestion and their functions.

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    Additional Questions

    1. Describe how the digestive systems of two types of mammals are adapted to their diets.

    2. Why don’t the stomach and the small intestine digest themselves?

    3. Is the presence of bacteria in the large intestine a sign of infection? Why or why not?

    4. Zinc deficiency causes an enlarged liver and spleen, poor growth, delayed sexual development, poor wound healing, and loss of the ability to taste and smell. A teenager following a poor diet has zinc deficiency symptoms. Another person has a zinc deficiency due to an inborn inability to absorb this micronutrient. Which of these persons suffer from a primary nutrient deficiency and which from a secondary nutrient deficiency?

    5. Select a food and trace the digestion of its component nutrients in the various organs of the digestive system.

    6. How do the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder contribute to digestion?

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