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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. How do the immune systems of vertebrates differ from those of invertebrates, and how are they similar?

2. What would be a consequence of a lack of:

  • a. helper T cells
  • b. cytotoxic T cells
  • c. B cells
  • d. gamma-delta T cells
  • e. macrophages
  • 3. State the function of each of the following immune system biochemicals:

  • a. defensins
  • b. collectins
  • c. antibodies
  • d. cytokines
  • e. complement proteins
  • 4. Describe the immune defenses of three types of organisms.

    5. List the cells and biochemicals that provide the humoral and cellular immune responses.

    6. What do a plasma cell and a memory cell descended from the same B cell have in common, and how do they differ?

    7. What part do antibodies play in allergic reactions and in autoimmune disorders?

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    1. What parts of the immune system do the following conditions affect?

  • a. AIDS.
  • b. Hay fever.
  • c. Anaphylactic shock.
  • d. Myasthenia gravis.
  • 2. How do each of the following cells interact with other immune system cells?

  • a. Mast cells.
  • b. Macrophages.
  • c. Cytotoxic T cells.
  • d. Helper T cells.
  • e. B cells.
  • 3. How can HIV kill cytotoxic T cells if it can’t enter them?

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