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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. Distinguish between an innate and a learned behavior.

2. How can the following behaviors be adaptive (further the likelihood of reproductive success for some individuals)?

  • a. territoriality
  • b. cannibalism
  • c. altruism
  • d. sexual selection
  • e. dominance hierarchies
  • 3. Define the following terms:

  • a. sexual dimorphism
  • b. parental investment
  • c. inclusive fitness
  • 4. Distinguish between confusion, fountain, and dilution effects in deterring predators.

    5. How does altruism differ in its literal and biological senses?

    6. What are the advantages of group living?

    7. How is communication important in the following situations?

  • a. maintaining a eusocial group
  • b. minimizing aggression
  • c. promoting courtship and mating behavior
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    1. Identify the type of learning displayed in the following situations:

  • a. A dog stands up and “begs” when it sees its owner open a can of dog food.
  • b. Newborn geese see a little girl when they are born. The girl raises them and they follow her everywhere, as if she is their mother.
  • c. A teen watches her older brothers ski for several seasons. Then, one year, she tries it and does well.
  • d. A man prepares a meal with a parrot sitting on his shoulder. The bird chatters and moves about, but the man doesn’t notice the activity.
  • e. A child walks to school without a sweater or jacket in October and is very cold. Finally, he begins wearing a jacket.
  • f. Children of a certain age can learn a foreign language with much less effort than an adult.
  • g. In the film, Apollo 13, a group of scientists are given a pile of materials and asked to fashion a device that will solve a problem aboard a spacecraft.
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