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35.1 The Lymphatic System
  • The lymphatic vessels form a one-way system, which transports lymph from the tissues and fat from the lacteals to certain cardiovascular veins.
  • The lymphoid organs (red bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes) play critical roles in defense mechanisms.
  1. What are the functions of the lymphatic system?
  2. How is fluid moved through lymph vessels?
  3. Lymph nodes contain ________________ in nodules of the cortex and _______________ in the medulla.
  4. What is the function of the spleen?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Lymphatic system characteristics
  2. Lymphatic vessels
  3. Lymphoid organs
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35.2 Nonspecific Defenses
  • Immunity consists of nonspecific and specific defenses to protect the body against disease.
  • Nonspecific defenses consist of barriers to entry, the inflammatory reaction, natural killer cells, and protective proteins.
  1. What are the four types of nonspecific defenses?
  2. In what way do histamines and kinins function in the inflammatory response?
  3. What is the complement system and what does it do?
  4. What is interferon and what does it do?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Immunity is...
  2. Barring entry
  3. Inflammatory reaction
  4. Natural killer cells
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35.3 Specific Defenses
  • Specific defenses require two types of lymphocytes: B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.
  1. Any foreign substance that stimulates an immune reaction is called what?
  2. _______ lymphocytes mature in bone marrow and _______ lymphocytes mature in the thymus gland.
  3. What cells produce antibodies and what do antibodies do?
  4. What is the function of memory B cells?
  5. T lymphocytes destroy invading cells by engulfing them, but must be activated first. How are T lymphocytes activated?
  6. B cells control ___________ mediated immunity, while T cells are responsible for _____________ mediated immunity.
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. If nonspecific defenses fail....
  2. Specific immunity is primarily the result of action of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
  3. B cells and antibody-mediated immunity
  4. Structure of IgG
  5. Other types of antibodies
  6. T cells and cell-mediated immunity
  7. Activation of T cells
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35.4 Immunity in other Animals
  • Investigators have discovered evidence of immunity in invertebrates and other vertebrates, but much more investigative study is needed in this area.
  1. True or False: Specific defenses are found in all animals.
  2. Which is hypothesized to have evolved first, T-lymphocyte cell-mediated immunity or B-lymphocyte antibody-mediated immunity?
Summaries of major points:
  1. Nonspecific immunity in invertebrates
  2. Specific immunity only in vertebrates
35.5 Induced Immunity
  • Induced immunity for medical purposes involves the use of vaccines to achieve long-lasting immunity and the use of antibodies to provide temporary immunity.
  1. What is the difference between active and passive induced immunity?
  2. What is the main function of cytokines?
  3. What is a monoclonal antibody?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Two types of immunity
  2. Active immunity
  3. Passive immunity
  4. Cytokines and immunity
  5. Monoclonal antibodies
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35.6 Immunity Side Effects
  • While immunity preserves life, it also is responsible for certain undesirable effects, such as allergies, autoimmune diseases, and tissue rejection.
  1. What antibodies are responsible for an immediate allergic response?
  2. What type of allergic response is regulated by T-cell secreted cytokines?
  3. What happens in a person given the wrong blood type?
  4. What causes rejection of transplanted organs?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Blood types
  2. ABO system
  3. Rh system
  4. Tissue rejection
  5. Autoimmune diseases
  6. Allergies
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