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36.1 Digestive Tracts
  • An incomplete digestive tract with only one opening has little specialization of parts; a complete digestive tract with two openings does have specialization of parts.
  • Discontinuous feeders, rather than continuous feeders, have a storage area for food.
  • The dentition of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores is adapted to the type of food they eat.
  1. What are the four main functions of the digestive system?
  2. Which have incomplete guts, complete guts, and no digestive tract at all: Planarians, Tapeworms, Earthworms?
  3. What are the differences between continuous and discontinuous feeders?
  4. ____________ animals feed only on plant material, _______________ feed only on other animal tissues, and _______________ feed on both plant and animal.
  5. What are the major differences between the digestive tracts of mammalian herbivores and carnivores?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Heterotrophs take in organic molecules synthesized by other animals
  2. Incomplete versus complete tracts
  3. Continuous versus discontinuous feeders
  4. Adaptation to diet
Labeling Exercises Art Quizzes
36.2 Human Digestive Tract
  • The human digestive tract has many specialized parts and several accessory organs of digestion, which contribute in their own way to the digestion of food.
  • The digestive enzymes are specific and have an optimum temperature and pH at which they function best.
  • The products of digestion are small molecules, such as amino acids and glucose, that can cross plasma membranes.
  1. Does human digestion take place within or outside of cells?
  2. Where does salivary amylase enter the digestive process and what does it do?
  3. What is the function of the epiglottis?
  4. The rhythmical contraction of the esophagus, which pushes food along the tube is called _____________.
  5. What is the pH of the stomach?
  6. What enzyme functions in the stomach in the breakdown of proteins?
  7. Where is bile produced, where is it stored, where does it work, and what does it do?
  8. What enzymes are produced by the pancreas and what does each help digest?
  9. What is the major function of villi lining the small intestine?
  10. What are the main substances absorbed by the large intestine?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Human digestion
  2. Mouth
  3. The pharynx and the esophagus
  4. Stomach
  5. Small intestine
  6. Absorption by villi
  7. Accessory organs
  8. Large intestine
Labeling Exercises Art Quizzes Animations
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36.3 Nutrition
  • Proper nutrition supplies the body with energy and nutrients, including all vitamins and minerals.
  1. What is the function of coenzymes and are all vitamins coenzymes?
  2. What are free radicals and what vitamins help to prevent them from damaging important molecules?
  3. A mineral required in amounts of greater than 100 mg per day is called a ____________, while a mineral required in amounts of less than 20 mg per day is called a ____________.
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Balanced diet...
  2. Vitamins
  3. Antioxidants
  4. Vitamin D
  5. Minerals
  6. Calcium
  7. Sodium

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