Site MapHelpFeedbackeLearning
(See related pages)

ConceptsQuestionsMedia Resources
38.1 Body fluid regulation
  • The mechanism for maintaining water balance differs according to the environment of the organism.
  1. What are the major mineral ions for which the body regulates concentrations?
  2. What is a major problem of water balance for those marine organisms not isotonic with sea water?
  3. What compound is concentrated in the tissues of cartilaginous fish to maintain an osmolarity equal to that of sea water?
  4. What adaptations do freshwater fish have to maintain osmotic equilibrium?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Water and ion balance
  2. Aquatic animals
Art Quizzes
38.2 Nitrogenous waste products
  • The amount of water and energy required to excrete various nitrogenous waste products differ.
  1. What are the three major forms of nitrogen excreted and what types of animal use each?
  2. Why can only aquatic organisms excrete ammonia?
  3. What are the advantages of producing uric acid?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Eliminating nitrogenous wastes
  2. Excreting ammonia
  3. Excreting urea
  4. Excreting uric acid
38.3 Organs of excretion
  • Complex animals have organs of excretion that maintain the water balance of the body and rid the body of waste molecules.
  1. Planarians maintain osmotic balance using organs called ____________.
  2. Earthworms excrete a great deal of water along with their metabolic wastes. Which nitrogenous product is most likely excreted?
  3. What organisms have organs of excretion called Malpighian tubules?
Summaries of major points:
  1. Tubular organs function in excretion and osmotic regulation
  2. Flame cells in Planaria
  3. Nephridia in earthworms
  4. Malpighian tubules in insects
38.4 Urinary system in humans
  • The urinary system of humans consists of organs that produce, store, and rid the body of urine.
  • The work of an organ is dependent on its microscopic anatomy; nephrons within the human kidney produce urine
  • Like many physiological processes, urine formation in humans is a multistep process.
  • In addition to ridding the body of waste molecules and maintaining water balance, the human kidneys adjust the pH of the blood.
  1. What are the three regions of the kidney?
  2. What are the microscopic functional units of the kidney?
  3. What is the process of glomerular filtration?
  4. What process occurs in the proximal convoluted tubules?
  5. Where does the secretion of further harmful substances such as uric acid, hydrogen ions, and ammonia take place?
  6. What hormone is responsible for the reabsorption of water and maintenance of water balance in the body?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Human urinary system is...
  2. Kidneys
  3. Nephrons
  4. Urine formation
  5. Glomerular filtration
  6. Tubular reabsorption
  7. Tubular secretion
  8. Reabsorption of water
  9. Adjustment of blood pH
  10. Artificial kidney dialysis
Labeling Exercises Art Quizzes Animations
(To play the animation, lengthen the pop-up window until the control bar appears.) Animation Quizzes

BiologyOnline Learning Center with Powerweb

Home > Chapter 38 > eLearning