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41.1 Diversity of skeletons
  • Animals have one of three types of skeletons: a hydrostatic skeleton, and exoskeleton, or an endoskeleton.
  • The strong but flexible skeleton of arthropods and vertebrates is adaptive for living on land.
  1. What is a hydrostatic skeleton?
  2. What are some advantages and disadvantages of exoskeletons?
  3. What are vertebrate endoskeletons composed of?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points
  1. Types of skeletons
  2. Hydrostatic skeletons
  3. Exoskeletons and endoskeletons

41.2 The human skeletal system
  • The cartilaginous skeleton of the fetus is converted to a skeleton of bone which continually undergoes remodeling.
  • There are two types of bone tissue called compact bone and spongy bone that differ in structure and function.
  • The human skeleton is divided into these portions: the axial skeleton consists of the skull, the ribs, the sternum, and the vertebrae, and the appendicular skeleton contains the girdles and the limbs.
  • The human skeleton is jointed; the joints differ in movability.
  1. What are some of the functions of the human skeleton?
  2. Cells that function to form bone are called _________________ and those that break down bone are called _______________.
  3. What are the components of the axial skeleton?
  4. What is the function of the vertebral column?
  5. Why is it important for the rib cage to be flexible?
  6. The limbs and their attachment sites (the pelvic and pectoral girdles) are part of the ______________ skeleton.
  7. What kind of tissue are ligaments and what do they do?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points
  1. Human skeletal functions
  2. Bone growth and renewal
  3. Anatomy of a long bone
  4. Bones make up the skeleton
  5. Classification of joints
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41.3 The human muscular system
  • Macroscopically, human skeletal muscles work in antagonistic pairs and exhibit tone.
  • Microscopically, muscle fiber contraction is dependent on filaments of both actin and myosin, and a ready supply of calcium ions (Ca2+) and ATP.
  • Motor nerve fibers release Ach at a neuromuscular junction and thereafter a muscle fiber contracts.
  1. What are tendons?
  2. Do muscles push or pull and why are they always found in pairs?
  3. What two proteins make up the contractile filaments of a sarcomere?
  4. What is the importance of calcium to muscle contraction?
  5. What neurotransmitter is released at the neuromuscular junction?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points
  1. Muscle tissue function
  2. Macroscopic anatomy and physiology
  3. Microscopic anatomy and physiology
  4. Muscle innervation
  5. Contraction
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