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Respiratory System

Functions of the Respiratory System
1. Describe the functions of the respiratory system.
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
2. Describe the anatomy of the respiratory passages, beginning at the nose and ending with the alveoli.
3. Describe the anatomy of the lungs, and define the respiratory membrane.
Ventilation and Lung Volumes
4. Explain how contraction of the muscles of respiration causes changes in thoracic volume during quiet breathing and during labored breathing.
5. Describe the changes in alveolar pressure that are responsible for the movement of air into and out of the lungs.
6. Explain how surfactant and pleural pressure prevent the collapse of the lungs and how changes in pleural pressure cause changes in alveolar volume.
7. List the pulmonary volumes and capacities and define each of them.
Gas Exchange
8. Explain the factors that affect gas movement through the respiratory membrane.
9. Describe the partial pressure gradients for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Gas Transport in the Blood
10. Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood.
Rhythmic Ventilation
11. Describe the respiratory areas of the brainstem and how they produce a rhythmic pattern of ventilation.
Modification of Ventilation
12. Name the neural mechanisms that can modify the normal rhythmic pattern of ventilation.
13. Explain how alterations in blood pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels affect ventilation.
Respiratory Adaptations to Exercise
14. Describe the regulation of ventilation during exercise and describe the changes in the respiratory system that result from exercise training.
Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System
15. Describe the effects of aging on the respiratory system.

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