Select the correct order of the four major layers of the Earth, from the innermost to outermost.
|A)||core, aesthenosphere, mantle, moho|
|B)||inner core, outer core, mantle, crust|
|C)||core, crust, lithosphere, mantle|
|D)||mantle, crust, mesosphere, aesthenosphere|
The inner core is thought to consist primarily of:
Which of the following statements about the study of the interior of the Earth is incorrect?
|A)||The earth's interior has a very uniform density.|
|B)||The velocity of seismic waves varies with the density of the material.|
|C)||S-waves cannot pass through the liquid outer core.|
|D)||Data from seismic waves can be used to produce three-dimensional tomographs.|
Oceanic crustal rock is best described as:
|A)||high in aluminum, sodium, potassium, and silica.|
|B)||highly variable composition.|
|C)||high in magnesium, iron, and calcium.|
|D)||having an average thickness of about 40 km.|
Which statement about the lithosphere is not correct?
|A)||Seismic waves travel more slowly through the aesthenosphere than the lithosphere.|
|B)||The lithosphere consists solely of the rigid crustal rocks.|
|C)||The Moho is the boundary between the crust and the upper mantle.|
|D)||The lithosphere is less dense than the aethenosphere.|
The principle explaining the variable bouyancy of crustal material is:
Which of the following was not an early theory about the "fit" of the continents across the Atlantic Ocean?
|A)||an unexplained cataclysmic event|
|B)||loss of continental crust to form Mars|
|C)||subsidence theory of separation|
Which of the following palaeogeographic relationships is not correct?
|A)||Pangaea, all the oceans|
|B)||Gondwanaland, southern continents|
|C)||Laurasia, northern continents|
|D)||Pangaea, super continent|
Which of the following does not accurately describe mid-ocean rises?
|A)||gently sloped compared to mid-ocean ridges|
|B)||narrow zones of volcanic activity|
|C)||central rift valley|
|D)||highest elevation along central axis|
Which of the following is not cited as evidence of plate motion?
|A)||earthquakes landward of subduction zones|
|B)||variability of heat flow through the ocean crust|
|C)||mirror images of polarity reversals on each side of mid-ocean ridges|
|D)||age of sediments increases from the continents to the mid-ocean ridges|
The theory of plate motion has been tested by all but which of the following methods?
|A)||temperature probes on the ocean floor|
|B)||temperature of surface waters|
|C)||radiometric dating of seafloor rocks|
|D)||recording the magnetic polarity of minerals in the crust|
Of the following statements about the Earth's plates, which is correct?
|A)||Oceans are not underlain by plates but by bowls.|
|B)||Oceanic plates are comprised of much older rocks than continental rocks.|
|C)||New lithosphere is formed at divergent plate boundaries.|
|D)||Transform faults are where crust is subducted.|
Rifting is closely associated with all but which of the following features or processes?
Which of the following features is not associated with subduction?
|A)||basaltic volcanism and rifting|
|C)||crumpled and fractured continental rocks|
|D)||volcanic island arc chains|
Passive continental margins are characterized by:
|A)||narrow continental shelves.|
|C)||wide, seismically quiet coastal zones.|
|D)||deep ocean trenches.|
Which of the following statements about hot spots is not correct?
|A)||As oceanic crust cools, it subsides.|
|B)||The youngest peak in a chain of seamounts is over the hot spot.|
|C)||Guyots are islands that have subsided beneath the surface.|
|D)||Hot spots cannot be located along spreading centers.|
Select the statement below which does not correctly describe the history of the continents.
|A)||Scientists must look for pre-Pangaean records in the oceans.|
|B)||Pangaea broke apart about 200 million years ago.|
|C)||The Walvis Ridge is a chain of seamounts connecting the Mid-Atlantic ridge with Africa.|
|D)||Through wandering, plates may show evidence of climates related to previous locales.|
Remnants of small crustal fragments that are accreted to larger crusts are termed:
Which statement does not correctly describe hydrothermal vents?
|A)||Hydrothermal vent activity is known to occur at seafloor spreading centers.|
|B)||Chimneys are channels where cold water seeps down into the crust.|
|C)||Vents occur over some of the thickest portions of oceanic crust.|
|D)||Minerals may precipitate rapidly out of super heated plumes of water.|
Which of the following statements accurately describes vent communities?
|A)||Organisms cannot live in the super heated environments of the vents.|
|B)||Vent organisms only exist in shallow water where sunlight provides energy for photosynthesis.|
|C)||Organisms are sustained by the rain of organic material from the surface.|
|D)||Vent communities rely on bacteria that thrive on minerals in the hydrothermal plumes.|
Which of the following is NOT a line of indirect evidence that leads us to believe that the Earth has a layered structure?
|A)||The density of the Earth is greater than the density of the surface rocks on Earth.|
|B)||The Earth's magnetic field indicates that the center must be composed of magnetic material.|
|C)||The composition of some meteorites, which are believed to be of the same material that the planets formed from, is different than the rocks on Earth's surface.|
|D)||Scientists have been able to drill to the top of outer core and from that knowledge have deduced the layered structure.|
What does the Moho represent?
|A)||A physical boundary between the crust and mantle.|
|B)||A chemical boundary between the crust and mantle.|
|C)||A chemical boundary between the lithosphere and asthenosphere.|
|D)||A physical boundary between the mantle and core.|
What was Hess's major contribution to the theory of plate tectonics?
|A)||He noticed that the continents looked like they once fit together.|
|B)||He Mapped the ocean floor and discovered the existence of underwater mountain ranges.|
|C)||He proposed a theory whereby lithosphere could move atop the asthenosphere due to mantle convection.|
|D)||He discovered the reversals of the Earth's magnetic field.|
Where is measured heat flow greatest along the oceanic crust?
|A)||In the center of ocean basins nearest the mid ocean ridges.|
|B)||At the edge of ocean basins nearest the continents.|
|C)||It depends on the ocean basin.|
|D)||Wherever the sediment is thickest.|
Which is not true about earthquakes?
|A)||They are commonly associated with subduction zones.|
|B)||Earthquakes with a deeper focus tend to occur farther inland.|
|C)||They are used to characterize the density and composition of the interior of the Earth.|
|D)||They tend to have the greatest magnitude at the mid ocean ridge.|
Which of the following is true based on the current directions of plate motion?
|A)||Africa and South America are getting closer.|
|B)||Japan and California are getting closer.|
|C)||South America and Australia are moving farther apart.|
|D)||New York and London are getting closer.|
Which of the lithospheric plates covers the largest amount of surface area on Earth?
Which is an example of an active continental rift?
|C)||The Coast of California|
Which type of crust will subduct most rapidly?
|A)||Old continental crust|
|B)||Young continental crust|
|C)||Old oceanic crust|
|D)||Young oceanic crust|
The Philippines are the result of what type of plate boundary?