Ethics for Life
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Table of Contents
Sample Chapter
Book Preface

Student Edition
Instructor Edition
Ethics for Life: A Text with Readings, 6/e

Judith A. Boss, Brown University

ISBN: 0078038332
Copyright year: 2014

Table of Contents

Section I The Study of Ethics
CHAPTER 1 Ethics: An Overview
What Is Ethics?
Normative and Theoretical Ethics
Philosophy and the Search for Wisdom
Metaphysics and the Study of Human Nature
Moral Knowledge: Can Moral Beliefs Be True?

CHAPTER 2 Moral Reasoning
The Three Levels of Thinking
Moral Analysis and Praxis
Overcoming Resistance
The Role of Is and Ought Statements in Ethics
Recognizing and Constructing Moral Arguments
Avoiding Informal Fallacies
Resolving Moral Dilemmas
A Final Word

CHAPTER 3 Conscience and Moral Development
Ethics and Human Development
Conscience: Culturally Relative or Universal?
The Affective and Cognitive Sides of the Conscience
Lawrence Kohlberg: The Stage Theory of Moral Development
Carol Gilligan: The Care Perspective
The Four Components of Moral Behavior
Moral Maturity: Moving Beyond Ethical Relativism

Section II Ethical Relativism
CHAPTER 4 Ethical Subjectivism: Morality Is Just a Matter of Personal Feeling
What Is Ethical Subjectivism?
What Ethical Subjectivism Is Not
The Roots of Ethical Subjectivism in Romantic Sentimentalism
The Kitty Genovese Syndrome
Critique of Ethical Subjectivism
     The Basic Idea of Ethical Subjectivism by James Rachels
     Student Relativism by Stephen A. Satris

CHAPTER 5 Divine Command Theory and Civil Religion
Religion and Morality
The Divine Command Theory
Critique of Divine Command Theory
Civil Religion, Society, and National Morality
Religion and the Moral Community
Does Morality Need Religion?
      Euthyphro by Plato

CHAPTER 6 Cultural Relativism: Is Morality Dependent on Culture?
What Is Cultural Relativism?
What Cultural Relativism Is Not
Distinguishing between Cultural and Sociological Relativism
Social Darwinian Ethics: The Concept of Moral Progress
Ruth Benedict: Cultural Relativism as a Protest against Social Darwinism
Cultural Relativism and the Moral Community
Cultural Relativism, Cross-Cultural Criticism, and Moral Progress
The Holocaust and Disillusionment with Cultural Relativism
Critique of Cultural Relativism
      Anthropology and the Abnormal by Ruth Benedict

Section III Morality as Universal
CHAPTER 7 Ethical Egoism: Morality Is Acting in Our Best Self-Interest
What Is Ethical Egoism?
Thomas Hobbes: Psychological Egoism
Ayn Rand: Objectivist Ethics and Rational Ethical Egoism
Ethical Egoism and Laissez-Faire Capitalism
Ethical Egoism and the Moral Community
Self-Interest and Happiness
Critique of Ethical Egoism
      Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes
      The Fountainhead by Ayn Rand

CHAPTER 8 Utilitarianism: The Greatest Happiness Principle
Utilitarianism and the Principle of Utility
Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and Social Reform
John Stuart Mill: Reformulation of Utilitarianism
Mo Tzu: Utilitarianism as Universal Love
Utilitarianism and the Moral Community
The Principle of Utility in Public Policy
Critique of Utilitarianism
      An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation by Jeremy Bentham
      Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill

CHAPTER 9 Natural Law Theory: Morality is Part of Rational Nature
What is Natural Law Ethics?
Thomas Aquinas: Catholic Natural Law Ethics
Just War Theory
Henry David Thoreau: Natural Law Theory and Civil Disobedience
Natural Law Theory and Contemporary Moral Issues
Critique of Natural Law Theory
      The Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas
      On the Duty of Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau

CHAPTER 10 Deontology: The Ethics of Duty
Deontology and Duty
Confucius: Duty and the Community
Immanuel Kant: The Categorical Imperative
The Good Will and Proper Self-Esteem
"Confucius: Duty and Community"
Is the Duty Not to Lie Absolute?
Prima Facie Deontology
The Duty of Justice
Critique of Deontology
      The Analects of Confucius Translated by Arthur Waley
      Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Ethics by Immanuel Kant

CHAPTER 11 Rights Ethics
The Emergence of Rights Ethics in Modern Society
John Locke: Natural Rights Ethics
The Marxist Critique of Natural Rights Ethics
Rights and Duties
Liberty (Negative) Rights and Welfare (Positive) Rights
Rights and the Moral Community
Critique of Rights Ethics
      The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Issued by the United Nations
      Two Treatises of Civil Government by John Locke

CHAPTER 12 Virtue Ethics and the Good Life
Virtue Ethics and Character
Aristotle: Reason and Virtue
Aristotle and Confucius: The Doctrine of the Mean
David Hume: Sentiment and Virtue
Nel Noddings: Feminist Care Ethics
Is Virtue Relative to Culture, Social Status, and Gender?
Moral Integrity and the Unity of Virtue
Virtue and Moral Education
Critique of Virtue Ethics
      Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle
      Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education by Nel Noddings

AFTERWORD Applying Moral Theory in Real Life
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