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Paraphrasing and Summarizing: Rephrase the main idea of each sample in your own words, without repeating words or sentence structure from the original statement.

Asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, allergies and many other human health problems have been linked to poor air quality. In the environment, decreased species biodiversity and vegetation productivity have been found.

Air pollution can also have a significant impact on our economy. It can cost a lot to change what we buy, what we use, and how it is produced in order to prevent air pollution. Economic costs are also found in fixing the damage caused by poor air pollution, including health and environmental problems.

Source: Environment Canada. “Health, Environment and the Economy.” Clean Air Online. Retrieved 16 April 2009 from
Twitter is so trendy. The microblogging service has spawned a vocabulary all its own, with words such a tweople (Twitter-speak for people), twirting (flirting) and tweeps (friends) showing up in tweets (posts, which must be under 140 characters).

There’s also twitterhea – the unstoppable urge to tweet.

The lingo makes Twitter users feel like they’re part of a community, says assistant professor Jennifer Clary-Lemon of the University of Winnipeg.

Source: Lasalle, Luann. “Twitter spawns a whole new vocabulary.” The Beacon Herald (Apr 4, 2009). 10.
Most jobs we consider “good” are those that fulfill our basic “lower-level” needs of security, food, clothing, shelter, income, and productive work. But even when our basic needs are met and our jobs are secure and productive, we as individuals are constantly changing. As we change, the demands and expectations we place on our jobs may change. Fortunately, some jobs grow and change with us, and this explains why some people are happy throughout many years in a job.

Source: Lambert, Stephen. Great Jobs for Business Majors. 3rd ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 12
Are some environments particularly conducive to stimulate leadership? The answer is yes. People are the product of their environments. Influences encountered at a young age are extremely significant.

There seems to be a strong link between parental influence and leadership identity. Parents who value and demonstrate leadership provide a head start: leadership is discussed, encouraged and part of the family culture.

Source: Henein, Amal and Morissette, Francoise. Made in Canada Leadership: Wisdom from the Nation’s Best and Brightest on Leadership Practice and Development. Mississauga: John Wiley & Sons Canada, 2007. 58.
Green-collar jobs are in the growing industries that are helping us kick the oil habit, curb greenhouse-gas emissions, eliminate toxins, and protect natural systems. Today, green-collar workers are installing solar panels, retrofitting buildings to make them more efficient, refining waste oil into biodiesel, erecting wind farms, repairing hybrid cars, building green rooftops, planting trees, constructing transit lines, and so much more. California has shown that a state can still grow its economy while reducing the rise in greenhouse-gas emissions. The nation can do the same thing.

Source: Jones, Van. The Green Collar Economy: How One Solution Can Fix Our Two Biggest Problems. New York: HarperCollins, 2008. 13-14.
Health care in the United States and Canada is currently undergoing great change. The volatility and growth of the health-care industry make it a perfect time for you as a business graduate to enter the field. Because it is a specialized and technical field, you may not have considered it. One of the goals of this book is to give you strategies to transform your credentials from a general business degree to specific marketable talents and techniques. Getting in on the ground floor of health care will accomplish that.

Moreover, health care’s changing climate will provide more opportunities than other paths in this book for job advancement, because as the industry shifts, realigns, consolidates, expands, and contracts, you will be given increased responsibility and opportunities to ride that growth while at the same time enhancing your own career.

Source: Lambert, Stephen. Great Jobs for Business Majors. 3rd ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 77.
He has a backpack and he is walking across campus; therefore, he must be a student. We reason from sign every day, but we may not be correct in doing so: The guy with the backpack turns out to be an unemployed mechanic looking for a warm building for refuge. The best way to reason from sign is to reason from multiple signs. Multiple signs ordinarily lead to a better conclusion. So, if he looks like a student, acts like a student, walks across campus like a student, and appears to know others on campus, the chances are better that he is a student. In reasoning from sign, you need a sufficient number of reliable signs that do not contradict and are not accidental or coincidental.

Source: Nelson, Paul E.; Titsworth, Scott; and Pearson, Judy C. iSpeak: Public Speaking for Contemporary Life. 2008 ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 258.
Imagine you are at a party. During the evening you form impressions about the people around you. Jonte seems relaxed and even-tempered, Nicole tense and irritable. Kyndra seems open and straightforward, Bekah hostile and evasive. Amin seems happy to see you; Seth definitely is not.

How do you reach these conclusions? To a surprising extent, you reach them not on the basis of what people say with words, but because of what they say with their posture, gestures, eyes, and facial expressions. Suppose you are sitting next to Amin, and he says, “This is a great party. I’m really glad to be here with you.” However, his body is turned slightly away from you, and he keeps looking at someone across the room. Despite what he says, you know he is not glad to be there with you.

Source: Lucas, Stephen E.; Wattam, Juanita; and Simeon, Lazaros. The Art of Public Speaking. Canadian ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 2008. 270-271.
Many of our environmental practices as adults are influenced by our kids. Take recycling for example -- children are quick to remind their parents that the empty pop bottle should not be tossed into the garbage can.

They have an important role to play in the sustaining and bettering the environmental movement. For this reason, environmental education is an important part of classroom learning.

Source: Environment Canada. “Teacher Tools.” EnviroZine #89 (Mar 2009). Retrieved 16 April 2009 from
One of the problems with using the Internet for information is that this medium is unregulated. The information may be biased, or just plain wrong, because no authority monitors the content of the sites. How do you determine what information is accurate and credible? Ultimately, you will have to make that decision. Ask yourself whether someone would have a reason to present biased information. If at all possible, verify the information through other sources, such as newspaper or magazine articles. If the source is a scholarly article, check for a list of references, and if a list of references is provided, try to determine whether the list is credible by verifying some of the sources. Finally, credible sources often provide the credentials of the individual(s) who wrote the article. If no source is provided, be cautious. Moreover, Web sources should be evaluated like any other source.

Source: Nelson, Paul E.; Titsworth, Scott; and Pearson, Judy C. iSpeak: Public Speaking for Contemporary Life. 2008 ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 110.

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