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8.1 Radiant Energy
Only photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and cyanobacteria can convert radiant (solar) energy into the chemical energy of carbohydrates.

Photosynthesis is extremely important because almost all living organisms are dependent on photosynthesis for a supply of nutrient molecules.
1. What is the ultimate source of energy for nearly all organisms on the earth?

2. What do plants use to capture the energy from sunlight?
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Light and Pigments
Energy Flow
Fossil Fuels

Labeling Exercises
Electromagnetic Spectrum (46.0K)
8.2 Structure and Function of Chloroplasts
Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts, organelles that have two parts: membranous thylakoids are surrounded by a fluid-filled stroma.

Photosynthesis has two sets of reactions: the light-dependent reactions during which solar energy is captured and the light-independent reactions during which carbohydrate is synthesized.
3. Light energy is transformed into what form of energy during the light-dependent reactions in chloroplasts?

4. What happens to the chemical energy in ATP and NADPH during the light-independent reactions?
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Art Quiz
Leaf - Levels of Organization (2)

General Biology Weblinks

Labeling Exercises
Chloroplast Structure (48.0K)
Leaf Anatomy (30.0K)
8.3 Solar Energy Capture
During the light-dependent reactions, solar energy is used to synthesize ATP and NADPH molecules.
5. What are photosystems and how are they related to chlorophyll?

6. How do the products of the cyclic electron pathway differ from those of the noncyclic electron pathway?
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Light Dependent

Art Quizzes
Light and Photosynthesis
Photosystem Antenna Complex
Photosystems I and II
Photosynthetic Electron Transport System
Chemiosmosis in a Chloroplast

Animation Quiz
Photosynthesis Light-Dependent Reactions
8.4 Carbohydrate Synthesis
During the light-independent reactions of the Calvin cycle, carbohydrate is synthesized from carbon dioxide using the energy of ATP and NADH2.
7. Is glucose the only compound that plants form from PGAL?

8. How efficient is photosynthesis at converting light energy into chemical energy?
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Light Independent

Art Quiz
Calvin Cycle

Animation Quiz
Photosynthesis Light-Independent Reactions
8.5 Other Types of Photosynthesis
Plants use either C3, C4, or CAM photosynthesis, named for the manner in which CO2 is fixed.
9. Why do different plants have variations in their pathways of photosynthesis?
Art Quiz
Comparison of C3 and C4 Plant Leaves
8.6 Photosynthesis Versus Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis captures energy in chemical bonds that is then released for biology work during cellular respiration.
10. Plants carry out photosynthesis to capture energy but do they release stored energy in the same manner as do animals?
Art Quiz
Chloroplasts, Mitochondria, and the Energy Cycle

Study Guide
Photosynthesis and Respiration

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