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Chapter Objectives
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After reading this chapter you should be able to:
  • describe gnotobiotic animals and their importance
  • describe the body sites where normal microbiota are found and give examples of the microorganisms found there
  • describe the cells, tissues, and organs of the immune system
  • describe the physical and chemical barriers a pathogen must breach if a parasitic relationship is to be established
  • describe inflammation and its role in providing nonspecific resistance
  • describe the complement system and how it is activated
  • describe how the complement system and phagocytosis function in inflammation and other nonspecific resistance mechanisms
  • discuss cytokines and natural killer cells and their role in nonspecific resistance

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