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Compare historical perspectives (e.g., Arnold Gesell, John B. Watson) with the current trends regarding the importance of biological versus environmental influences on development.

Describe the following issues in developmental psychology:
  1. passive versus active child
  2. continuity versus discontinuity
  3. situational influences versus individual characteristics
  4. cultural universals versus cultural relativism
  5. risk and resilience

Compare and contrast the following pairs of developmental perspectives:
  1. behavioral and cognitive social learning
  2. Piagetian theory and information-processing
  3. psychodynamic and Erikson's modification of the psychodynamic theory
  4. systems theory perspectives and the life span perspective

Describe and give an example of each of the four ecological systems that relate to children’s development, according to systems theories.

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