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Multiple Choice
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Which of the following is NOT a reason why psychologists study children?
A)Studying children can lead to a better understanding of adult behavior.
B)Understanding normal child development helps in the early detection of problems.
C)Information about child development can have important practical and policy implications.
D)Children are easier to obtain as research subjects and easier to study than adults.

Most modern developmental psychologists believe that
A)precisely how much development is influenced by biological factors and by environmental factors is of primary importance.
B)how both environmental and biological factors interact to influence development is of primary importance.
C)biological factors are most influential in development.
D)environmental factors are most influential in development.

Dr. Johnson, a developmental psychologist, believes that development occurs in a series of steps or stages. Dr. Johnson views development as
A)being primarily influenced by the environment.
B)being primarily influenced by biology.
C)discontinuous in nature.
D)continuous in nature.

According to the behaviorist approach to development, the child is ______ and development is _____ .
A)passive, continuous
B)active, continuous
C)passive, discontinuous
D)active, discontinuous

According to the cognitive developmental perspective of development, the child is ______ and development is _____ .
A)passive, continuous
B)active, continuous
C)passive, discontinuous
D)active, discontinuous

A person who claims a child is fixated in the oral stage of development after seeing the child biting her/his fingernails likely agrees with the ______ perspective.
A)cognitive social learning
B)cognitive developmental

If a developmental psychologist attempted to examine the exact steps a child took in solving a math problem and described those steps in the form of a flow chart, the psychologist would be working from the ____ perspective.
A)cognitive social learning

Which theorist modified Freud’s ideas to include social and cultural factors and to cover the entire life span?
A)Jean Piaget
B)B. F. Skinner
C)Albert Bandura
D)Erik Erikson

Which theorist is most closely associated with the cognitive social learning theory of development?
A)Jean Piaget
B)B. F. Skinner
C)Albert Bandura
D)Erik Erikson

Which of the following perspectives is concerned with similarities between human and nonhuman species in order to describe development from a biological and evolutionary standpoint?
A)Life span perspective
B)Historical perspective
C)Ethological perspective
D)Ecological perspective

The current focus in understanding development is on the
A)outcome of development.
B)process of development.
C)determinants of development.
D)goals and objectives of development.

In addition to helping organize and integrate existing information into a meaningful whole, developmental theories also
A)prove which issues are factual.
B)are unchanging, thereby serving as a standard for comparison purposes.
C)are always global in nature rather than concerned with specific areas of development.
D)lead to testable predictions about behavior.

In general, behavioral perspectives on development see the role of the child as being
A)an active participant.
B)passive in shaping his or her own development.
C)selective in choosing which stimuli to associate.
D)unable to benefit from environmental consequences.

Which of the following does NOT describe the organismic perspective of development?
A)As the child develops, condition behaviors less egocentric and less centered.
B)Children actively construct the reality of their world.
C)Objective reality is central in the child’s development.
D)Development is stagelike with qualitative differences occurring.

Vygotsky proposed that child development is
A)due to genetic components of a culture.
B)a product of social interaction.
C)a product of formal education.
D)a product of assimilation and accommodation.

It is your first day in a child psychology course. Your professor announces that he has been trained in psychodynamic theory. You can correctly assume that based on his educational experience, your professor will view development as being governed by
A)unconscious drives and instincts.
B)environmental consequences.
C)physiological functioning.
D)biological traits.

According to Erikson’s theory all but one of the following is a task of adulthood.
A)Initiative vs. Guilt
B)Intimacy vs. Isolation
C)Generativity vs. Stagnation
D)Ego integrity vs. Despair

According to dynamic systems theory, the principle of complexity involves
A)large systems.
B)the whole being more than the sum of its parts.
C)the number of individuals in a system.
D)the interrelatedness of the parts of the system.

The ecological perspective of development emphasizes
A)a series of sequential stages.
B)the role of heredity in development.
C)the role of learning in development.
D)the context in which development occurs.

Ethological theorists view children as
A)captives of their biological roots.
B)incapable of modifying “elicitor” behaviors.
C)manifestations of basic needs and instinctual drives.
D)open to learning and environmental experiences thereby working with biologically-based behaviors.

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