With gender equality being a prominent issue in the United States during the last 20 years
|A)||there has been a trend toward male roles becoming more masculine and female roles becoming more feminine.|
|B)||the United States has begun to adopt more flexible sex roles whereas other countries’ sex roles remain more rigid.|
|C)||sex roles have changed so dramatically that we are now beginning to see a trend toward more traditional roles.|
|D)||sex-role stereotypes have changed very little|
Gender-role standards have been shown to shape behavior differences in boys and girls beginning with
In regard to sex-appropriate standards of behavior, which of the following would be least likely to occur?
|A)||A father allows his daughter to play baseball.|
|B)||A mother allows her daughter to play baseball.|
|C)||A father allows his son to cuddle a doll.|
|D)||A mother allows her son to cuddle a doll.|
George and Georgiana have a very equal marriage. They share household responsibilities and they have equal incomes. Soon they will be having their first child. What will likely happen when the child arrives?
|A)||They will strive to model flexible sex-role standards for their child.|
|B)||Their marital roles will remain unchanged.|
|C)||Their marital roles will shift toward even greater equality.|
|D)||Their marital roles will become more traditional.|
Men tend to become more _____ and women become _____ more as they grow old.
Pat is a female child who was mistakenly raised as a boy due to prenatal hormonal anomalies. Pat will likely experience gender-role difficulties
|A)||unless gender reassignment occurs between the ages of 18 months to 3 years.|
|B)||unless gender reassignment occurs between the ages of 3 to 5 years.|
|C)||unless gender reassignment occurs anytime before puberty.|
|D)||regardless of when or if gender reassignment occurs.|
Sara believes that when her brother has long hair and likes cooking, he is no longer a boy. Sara has not yet reached which of Kohlberg’s stages of gender-typing?
Which of the following is a gender-schematic child most likely to distort during recall?
|A)||A picture of a boy playing with a doll.|
|B)||A picture of a boy playing with a toy train.|
|C)||A picture of a girl playing with a tea set.|
|D)||A picture of a girl playing with a sewing machine.|
Much of the gender-differentiated treatment received by children from their parents seems to be related to
Permanent father absence has the most severe effects on sons during which period?
|C)||Between 5 and 10 years old|
|D)||Before the age of 5|
Lucy and Ricky brought their baby boy home in a blue outfit, wrapped in a football-print blanket. The baby’s room is decorated with baseball and football mobiles. Without even realizing it, Lucy and Ricky are
|A)||creating a gender-free environment.|
|B)||gender-role typing the baby.|
|D)||displaying concern about their child’s masculinity.|
The expression of warmth, and suppression of overt aggression and sexuality, are regarded as more appropriate for __________ than __________.
In which of the following areas were equivocal gender differences found to exist?
Perhaps the best way to view gender typing is as
|A)||an ongoing and changing process throughout development.|
|B)||an activity of childhood, once established, always the same.|
|C)||an activity of adolescence and early adulthood.|
|D)||an insignificant event that has little relevance to most individuals.|
Bob has been in three fights over the last two days. He lost all of them, and was actually hurt quite badly the last time. Bob will probably experience a drop in what hormonal levels as a result of losing?
According to Kohlberg’s cognitive theory of the development of gender typing, children’s differentiation of gender roles and their perception of themselves as more similar to same-sex models occurs before
|C)||a gender schema develops.|
|D)||completion of the Oedipus complex.|
Which of the following research findings regarding gender-schema theory is incorrect?
|A)||Young children appear to rely more on gender schemas than older children.|
|B)||“Gender schematic” children display better memories for gender-consistent information.|
|C)||“Gender aschematic” children focus more on nongender aspects of information.|
|D)||Children show little variations in the extent to which they have well-formed gender schemas.|
Which of the following sex differences has been observed in the way parents treat their children?
|A)||Girls are encouraged equally as boys to be independent and achieve.|
|B)||Girls are allowed to run errands and engage in venturesome activities at the same time as boys.|
|C)||Parents tend to be more apprehensive about their sons as opposed to daughters.|
|D)||Boys are more likely to be left unsupervised after school in comparison to girls.|
What types of behaviors do teachers, regardless of their gender, tend to prefer?
|C)||Assertive and competitive behaviors.|
Possessing both masculine and feminine characteristics with respect to psychology and/or appearance is referred to as