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Multiple Choice
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With gender equality being a prominent issue in the United States during the last 20 years
A)there has been a trend toward male roles becoming more masculine and female roles becoming more feminine.
B)the United States has begun to adopt more flexible sex roles whereas other countries’ sex roles remain more rigid.
C)sex roles have changed so dramatically that we are now beginning to see a trend toward more traditional roles.
D)sex-role stereotypes have changed very little

Gender-role standards have been shown to shape behavior differences in boys and girls beginning with
B)elementary school.
D)middle school.

In regard to sex-appropriate standards of behavior, which of the following would be least likely to occur?
A)A father allows his daughter to play baseball.
B)A mother allows her daughter to play baseball.
C)A father allows his son to cuddle a doll.
D)A mother allows her son to cuddle a doll.

George and Georgiana have a very equal marriage. They share household responsibilities and they have equal incomes. Soon they will be having their first child. What will likely happen when the child arrives?
A)They will strive to model flexible sex-role standards for their child.
B)Their marital roles will remain unchanged.
C)Their marital roles will shift toward even greater equality.
D)Their marital roles will become more traditional.

Men tend to become more _____ and women become _____ more as they grow old.
A)autonomous; expressive
B)irritable; nurturant
C)expressive; autonomous
D)expressive; nurturant

Pat is a female child who was mistakenly raised as a boy due to prenatal hormonal anomalies. Pat will likely experience gender-role difficulties
A)unless gender reassignment occurs between the ages of 18 months to 3 years.
B)unless gender reassignment occurs between the ages of 3 to 5 years.
C)unless gender reassignment occurs anytime before puberty.
D)regardless of when or if gender reassignment occurs.

Sara believes that when her brother has long hair and likes cooking, he is no longer a boy. Sara has not yet reached which of Kohlberg’s stages of gender-typing?
A)Gender conformity
B)Gender constancy
C)Gender identity
D)Gender stability

Which of the following is a gender-schematic child most likely to distort during recall?
A)A picture of a boy playing with a doll.
B)A picture of a boy playing with a toy train.
C)A picture of a girl playing with a tea set.
D)A picture of a girl playing with a sewing machine.

Much of the gender-differentiated treatment received by children from their parents seems to be related to
A)physical activity.
C)interpersonal skills.

Permanent father absence has the most severe effects on sons during which period?
A)Late adolescence
B)Early adolescence
C)Between 5 and 10 years old
D)Before the age of 5

Lucy and Ricky brought their baby boy home in a blue outfit, wrapped in a football-print blanket. The baby’s room is decorated with baseball and football mobiles. Without even realizing it, Lucy and Ricky are
A)creating a gender-free environment.
B)gender-role typing the baby.
C)encouraging androgyny.
D)displaying concern about their child’s masculinity.

The expression of warmth, and suppression of overt aggression and sexuality, are regarded as more appropriate for __________ than __________.
A)men; women
B)women; men
C)children; adolescents
D)teachers; pupils

In which of the following areas were equivocal gender differences found to exist?
A)Cognitive development
C)Exploratory activity

Perhaps the best way to view gender typing is as
A)an ongoing and changing process throughout development.
B)an activity of childhood, once established, always the same.
C)an activity of adolescence and early adulthood.
D)an insignificant event that has little relevance to most individuals.

Bob has been in three fights over the last two days. He lost all of them, and was actually hurt quite badly the last time. Bob will probably experience a drop in what hormonal levels as a result of losing?

According to Kohlberg’s cognitive theory of the development of gender typing, children’s differentiation of gender roles and their perception of themselves as more similar to same-sex models occurs before
B)gender identification.
C)a gender schema develops.
D)completion of the Oedipus complex.

Which of the following research findings regarding gender-schema theory is incorrect?
A)Young children appear to rely more on gender schemas than older children.
B)“Gender schematic” children display better memories for gender-consistent information.
C)“Gender aschematic” children focus more on nongender aspects of information.
D)Children show little variations in the extent to which they have well-formed gender schemas.

Which of the following sex differences has been observed in the way parents treat their children?
A)Girls are encouraged equally as boys to be independent and achieve.
B)Girls are allowed to run errands and engage in venturesome activities at the same time as boys.
C)Parents tend to be more apprehensive about their sons as opposed to daughters.
D)Boys are more likely to be left unsupervised after school in comparison to girls.

What types of behaviors do teachers, regardless of their gender, tend to prefer?
A)Female-typical behaviors.
B)Male-typical behaviors.
C)Assertive and competitive behaviors.
D)Cross-gender behaviors.

Possessing both masculine and feminine characteristics with respect to psychology and/or appearance is referred to as

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