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Multiple Choice
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During which period of prenatal development does the fertilized ovum travel down the fallopian tube and become implanted in the uterus wall?
A)the period of the fetus
B)the period of the embryo
C)the period of the egg
D)the period of the zygote

During which time of pregnancy should women be most concerned about avoiding environmental intrusions such as drugs?
A)women should be equally concerned during all periods
B)the first two weeks
C)the third week to the end of the second month
D)the third month until birth

Which of the following protects the developing fetus from physical shocks and temperature changes?
C)amniotic fluid
D)umbilical cord

Which of the following happens during the period of the fetus?
A)The zygote differentiates into three layers.
B)The placenta develops.
C)The central nervous system develops rapidly.
D)The amniotic sac develops.

What is meant by the age of viability?
A)The age at which it is safe to get pregnant.
B)The age after which an animal could survive without a parent.
C)The age after which a prematurely born child is likely to survive.
D)The time when the embryo is no longer likely to be spontaneously aborted.

The effects of teratogens on developing fetuses generally adhere to certain principles. Which of the following is NOT a principle that describes teratogenic effects?
A)Maternal and fetal genotypes can affect the developing organism’s response to the teratogen.
B)Each teratogen results in its own malformation, which only that teratogen can produce.
C)Teratogen may produce gross deviations in the child despite having no effect upon the mother.
D)Physiological factors of the mother will influence the actions of teratogens.

Over the past decade there has been an increase in the number of children diagnosed with AIDS. How do most children with AIDS contract the disease?
A)Infection by their mothers prenatally, during birth, or through their mother’s milk.
B)Vaccinations in destitute areas where one needle is frequently used for multiple patients.
C)Increasing IV drug use among today’s children.
D)Blood transfusions.

How do premature and low birthweight babies differ from other babies?
A)They are more attractive and sturdier.
B)They have irritating, high-pitched cries and are not very responsive.
C)They smile more than other babies.
D)They have large eyes and heads.

Which of the following is likely to be found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome?
B)facial, heart, and limb defects
C)slow movements
D)normal intelligence

Which of the following is NOT an effect of dietary deficiencies in pregnant women?
A)increased rates of spontaneous abortion
B)retarded brain growth and maturation in the fetus
C)premature births
D)irritating, high-pitched cries in the infants

In the period of the embryo, the inner mass of the zygote differentiates into three layers known as the
A)ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
B)placenta, amnion and chorion.
C)blastocyst, trophoblast and zygote.
D)skin, muscle and bone.

Your sister has just had a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. She was most likely at what stage of prenatal development?
A)Period of the ovum
B)Germinal period
C)Period of the embryo
D)Period of the fetus

Which of the following principles does not accurately describe the effects of teratogens on prenatal development?
A)Individual teratogens influence specific developmental processes.
B)Maternal genotypes can affect the developing organisms response to teratogens.
C)Physiological status of the mother will influence the action of a teratogen.
D)Teratogenic agents will not produce a detrimental effect on the mother.

Pregnancy and birth complications related to maternal age (under fifteen and over thirty-five) are now thought to be attributed to
A)immaturity or deterioration of the reproductive system.
B)the general health of the mother.
C)the rare blood type O.
D)the general support available to the mother.

As part of your medical internship, you are responsible for educating pregnant women with AIDS. You tell them that they can reduce the risk of transmission to their unborn child by
A)continuing with their prescription drug therapy.
B)discontinuing their intravenous drug use.
C)obtaining a complete blood transfusion.
D)remaining in the hospital during their pregnancy.

The actual birth of the baby occurs during which stage of labor?

Which function is NOT assessed by the Apgar?
A)Respiratory effort
B)Body color of the infant
D)Heart rate

Contact between mother and her premature infant during the first few hours of life
A)is crucial to the development of a healthy attachment relationship.
B)appears to be most beneficial to the building of maternal self-confidence that can lead to more sensitive parenting.
C)has been found to be extremely beneficial for the father/mother relationship.
D)when missed, has been found to be detrimental to the development of the attachment relationship.

The most consistent long-term effects of stress associated with raising a premature baby have been found
A)between parents.
B)between mother and child.
C)between father and child.
D)among siblings.

Werner’s longitudinal study of the effects of birth complications on the development of children living on Kauai at the 2-year follow-up found that long-term effects of severe perinatal complications were
A)minimized in families where mothers had high intelligence regardless of socioeconomic status.
B)minimized in stable, high socioeconomic status family environments where mothers had high intelligence.
C)present at the same levels across all families.
D)relatively absent across all children and families studied.

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