During which period of prenatal development does the fertilized ovum travel down the fallopian tube and become implanted in the uterus wall?
|A)||the period of the fetus|
|B)||the period of the embryo|
|C)||the period of the egg|
|D)||the period of the zygote|
During which time of pregnancy should women be most concerned about avoiding environmental intrusions such as drugs?
|A)||women should be equally concerned during all periods|
|B)||the first two weeks|
|C)||the third week to the end of the second month|
|D)||the third month until birth|
Which of the following protects the developing fetus from physical shocks and temperature changes?
Which of the following happens during the period of the fetus?
|A)||The zygote differentiates into three layers.|
|B)||The placenta develops.|
|C)||The central nervous system develops rapidly.|
|D)||The amniotic sac develops.|
What is meant by the age of viability?
|A)||The age at which it is safe to get pregnant.|
|B)||The age after which an animal could survive without a parent.|
|C)||The age after which a prematurely born child is likely to survive.|
|D)||The time when the embryo is no longer likely to be spontaneously aborted.|
The effects of teratogens on developing fetuses generally adhere to certain principles. Which of the following is NOT a principle that describes teratogenic effects?
|A)||Maternal and fetal genotypes can affect the developing organism’s response to the teratogen.|
|B)||Each teratogen results in its own malformation, which only that teratogen can produce.|
|C)||Teratogen may produce gross deviations in the child despite having no effect upon the mother.|
|D)||Physiological factors of the mother will influence the actions of teratogens.|
Over the past decade there has been an increase in the number of children diagnosed with AIDS. How do most children with AIDS contract the disease?
|A)||Infection by their mothers prenatally, during birth, or through their mother’s milk.|
|B)||Vaccinations in destitute areas where one needle is frequently used for multiple patients.|
|C)||Increasing IV drug use among today’s children.|
How do premature and low birthweight babies differ from other babies?
|A)||They are more attractive and sturdier.|
|B)||They have irritating, high-pitched cries and are not very responsive.|
|C)||They smile more than other babies.|
|D)||They have large eyes and heads.|
Which of the following is likely to be found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome?
|B)||facial, heart, and limb defects|
Which of the following is NOT an effect of dietary deficiencies in pregnant women?
|A)||increased rates of spontaneous abortion|
|B)||retarded brain growth and maturation in the fetus|
|D)||irritating, high-pitched cries in the infants|
In the period of the embryo, the inner mass of the zygote differentiates into three layers known as the
|A)||ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.|
|B)||placenta, amnion and chorion.|
|C)||blastocyst, trophoblast and zygote.|
|D)||skin, muscle and bone.|
Your sister has just had a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. She was most likely at what stage of prenatal development?
|A)||Period of the ovum|
|C)||Period of the embryo|
|D)||Period of the fetus|
Which of the following principles does not accurately describe the effects of teratogens on prenatal development?
|A)||Individual teratogens influence specific developmental processes.|
|B)||Maternal genotypes can affect the developing organisms response to teratogens.|
|C)||Physiological status of the mother will influence the action of a teratogen.|
|D)||Teratogenic agents will not produce a detrimental effect on the mother.|
Pregnancy and birth complications related to maternal age (under fifteen and over thirty-five) are now thought to be attributed to
|A)||immaturity or deterioration of the reproductive system.|
|B)||the general health of the mother.|
|C)||the rare blood type O.|
|D)||the general support available to the mother.|
As part of your medical internship, you are responsible for educating pregnant women with AIDS. You tell them that they can reduce the risk of transmission to their unborn child by
|A)||continuing with their prescription drug therapy.|
|B)||discontinuing their intravenous drug use.|
|C)||obtaining a complete blood transfusion.|
|D)||remaining in the hospital during their pregnancy.|
The actual birth of the baby occurs during which stage of labor?
Which function is NOT assessed by the Apgar?
|B)||Body color of the infant|
Contact between mother and her premature infant during the first few hours of life
|A)||is crucial to the development of a healthy attachment relationship.|
|B)||appears to be most beneficial to the building of maternal self-confidence that can lead to more sensitive parenting.|
|C)||has been found to be extremely beneficial for the father/mother relationship.|
|D)||when missed, has been found to be detrimental to the development of the attachment relationship.|
The most consistent long-term effects of stress associated with raising a premature baby have been found
|B)||between mother and child.|
|C)||between father and child.|
Werner’s longitudinal study of the effects of birth complications on the development of children living on Kauai at the 2-year follow-up found that long-term effects of severe perinatal complications were
|A)||minimized in families where mothers had high intelligence regardless of socioeconomic status.|
|B)||minimized in stable, high socioeconomic status family environments where mothers had high intelligence.|
|C)||present at the same levels across all families.|
|D)||relatively absent across all children and families studied.|