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Multiple Choice
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The recent conception of newborns and infants suggests that
A)newborns’ innate reflexes remain with them throughout their lives.
B)the newborn’s world is a “blooming, buzzing confusion.”
C)a newborn’s senses are equally as effective as an adult’s senses.
D)infants’ behaviors can be characterized in terms of states.

If you told your friend to “sleep like a baby,” you would be suggesting that your friend should
A)experience less REM sleep than normal adults.
B)follow a consistent progression through the sleep stages.
C)experience a restful night’s sleep without waking.
D)distribute his/her daily sleep in long and short naps.

Kelly is a three-month-old infant. As you observe her you notice that her eyes are open and are bright and shining, she can track moving objects with her eyes, she is relatively inactive, and she has a relaxed face. Being an astute student of infant development, you would likely classify Kelly into which of the following infant states?
A)Alert inactivity
B)Waking activity

It is currently thought that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome may be the result of
A)a genetic disorder.
B)a deficit of REM sleep.
C)an insecure attachment between infant and caregiver.
D)respiratory difficulties.

Infants can most effectively soothe themselves by
D)playing with one’s toes.

All of the following reflexes disappear at about three to four months EXCEPT
A)stepping reflex.
B)rooting response.
C)eye blink.
D)Palmer grasp.

Jaime has normal visual and auditory capabilities for a newborn. Knowing this, which of the following would you expect from her?
A)She will be more sensitive to low-frequency sounds than to high-frequency sounds.
B)She will be able to focus clearly at a distance of 50 feet.
C)She will be unable to make distinctions among human voices.
D)She will be able to track a moving object.

It has been shown that infants have preferences for certain tastes. Which taste do infants prefer the MOST?
A)Sour taste
B)Bitter taste
C)Sweet taste
D)Bland taste

If an infant has habituated, that infant has
A)associated two events.
B)responded increasingly less to a stimulus.
C)developed a persistent habit.
D)been rewarded for certain behaviors.

Why do infants often display a lack of memory for items and events?
A)They do not yet have the language abilities that are necessary for effective memory.
B)They generally have poor memories.
C)They have trouble retrieving information from memory.
D)The abundant sleep they engage in hinders the memory process.

The continuum of alertness or consciousness that ranges from vigorous activity to regular sleep is referred to as
A)activity level.
C)sleep-wake patterns.

Which of the following does NOT justify why infant reflexes can serve as a “window to the brain”?
A)The presence or absence of reflexes may indicate the soundness of central nervous system activity.
B)Reflexes are central to any neurological exam in infancy.
C)The developmental course of reflexes varies by reflex, therefore giving information regarding specific neurological functioning.
D)Reflexes are inconclusive during infancy and only begin to have clinical value during later childhood.

The technique in which a researcher repeatedly presents a stimulus until the infant no longer responds is known as
A)novelty preference.
C)orienting reflex.

Infant hearing is
A)identical to adult hearing with regard to both loudness and frequency.
B)identical to adult hearing with regard to loudness but shows a sensitivity to higher frequencies.
C)identical to adult hearing with regard to frequency but needs a somewhat louder sound.
D)different from adult hearing in that it needs louder sounds and is more sensitive to higher frequencies.

A mother of a newborn seems convinced that her baby can tell the difference among several colors. You would respond to her by saying her baby probably is
A)seeing different colors because that ability is innate and quite like a universal phenomenon.
B)seeing different colors as a result of the bright colors in her environment.
C)not seeing colors but only has gas.
D)seeing colors because both parents are artists and she likely has a specialized gene for that ability.

Timothy is 3 months old and his dad likes to show him photos in a big family album. Timothy’s dad had noticed that his son correctly anticipates where the photos will be when he turns the page (left then right). He wonders if his son will be the next Bill Gates. You would tell Timothy’s dad
A)Timothy’s behavior is normal for a 3-month old.
B)Timothy is not usually anticipating; it is just a fluke.
C)Timothy appears to be showing visual expectations but this means something is wrong with his visual acuity.
D)Timothy is indeed quite precocious, and he should start making plans for Timothy’s college.

One possible confounding variable in Gibson and Walk’s (1960) study on depth perception is that
A)the infant’s only traveled from “shallow to deep.”
B)the infants always traveled from “deep to shallow.”
C)shadows were caused by the lighting.
D)in order to complete the task, infants were required to crawl.

Researchers such as Meltzoff and Borton (1979) have attempted to explore the interaction between the visual and tactile sensory modalities in children. These researchers determined that
A)some touch-vision connections can be observed in 1-month-old infants.
B)young infants do not link the visual and tactile modalities.
C)connections between vision and touch are difficult to demonstrate in infants less than 6 months of age.
D)infants are born with the ability to connect tactile and visual information.

Rover-Collier’s (1987) research indicates that babies learn
A)noxious or unpleasant events better than pleasant events.
B)noxious or unpleasant events as well as pleasant events.
C)noxious or unpleasant events with more difficulty than pleasant events.
D)escape responses more quickly than avoidance responses.

Meltzoff has found that 14-month-old infants not only can imitate but also can retain such information for up to
A)24 hours.
B)72 hours.
C)1 week.
D)2 weeks.

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