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Testing Your Knowledge
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1. How are transcription and translation economical?

2. Refer to the figure above to answer the following questions:

  • a. What are the next three amino acids to be added to peptide b?
  • b. Fill in the correct codons in the mRNA opposite the template DNA strand.
  • c. What is the sequence of the DNA coding strand (as much as can be determined from the figure)?
  • d. Is the end of the peptide encoded by this gene indicated in the figure? How can you tell?
  • e. What might happen to peptide b after it is terminated and released from the ribosome?
  • 3. List three mRNA sequences that could encode this amino acid sequence: histidine-alanine-arginine-serine-leucine-valine-cysteine.

    4. List the codons of a one-nucleotide genetic code and of a two-nucleotide genetic code. Why are these codes insufficient?

    5. Write a DNA sequence that would encode this amino acid sequence: valine-tryptophan-lysine-proline-phenylalanine-threonine.

    6. When Crick and his coworkers examined synthetic RNA of sequence ACACACACACACACA… they found that it is the encoded the amino acid sequence for thr-his-thr-his-thr…. What would a next step be in determining the codon assignments for ACA and CAC?

    7. How is complementary base pairing responsible for:

  • a. The structure of the DNA double helix?
  • b. DNA replication?
  • c. Transcription of RNA from DNA?
  • d. mRNA’s attachment to a ribosome?
  • e. Codon-anticodon pairing?
  • f. tRNA conformation?
  • 8. What changes does RNA undergo after transcription and a protein undergo after translation?

    9. How can a defect in protein folding cause disease?

    10. State the sequence of an antisense RNA that might be used to fight a virus that has a partial DNA template sequence of TTCGCTAAAGACTGT.

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