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16.1 Cloning of a Gene
  • Using recombinant DNA technology, bacteria and viruses can be genetically engineered to clone a gene.
  • A genomic library contains bacteria or viruses that carry fragments of the DNA of a particular organism.
  • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) makes multiple copies of DNA segments. Analysis of the DNA usually follows.
  1. What two enzymes are required to inject foreign DNA into a cell and what do they do?
  2. What does PCR stand for and what is it used for?
  3. What is DNA fingerprinting?
Essential Study Partner Summaries of major points:
  1. Recombinant DNA technology
  2. Plasmid vector compared to viral vector
  3. Using a genomic library
  4. The polymerase chain reaction
  5. Analyzing DNA
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16.2 Biotechnology Products
  • Bacteria, agricultural plants, and farm animals have been genetically engineered to produce commercially available products.
  • Human tissues and farm animals are being genetically engineered to serve as a source of organs for human transplant patients.
  • Agricultural plants and farm animals have been genetically engineered to improve their yield.
  • It is now possible to clone animals, and cloning is used to produce multiple copies of farm animals that have been genetically engineered.
  1. What are transgenic organisms?
  2. Why must the nucleus of an adult animal be inserted into an egg cell in order for cloning to function?
Summaries of major points:
  1. Transgenic organisms
  2. Transgenic bacteria
  3. Transgenic plants
  4. Transgenic animals
  5. Cloning transgenic animals
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16.3 The Human Genome Project
  • The Human Genome Project has two goals: to genetically map each chromosome and to sequence the DNA bases of each chromosome.
  1. What is a genome?
  2. A ______________ shows the loci of genes on a chromosome.
Summaries of major points:
  1. The Human Genome Project will map the location of human genes on all chromosomes.
  2. Second goal is to construct a base sequence map of the 3 billion base pairs in human genome.
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16.4 Gene Therapy
  • Gene therapy is now being used to replace defective genes with healthy genes and to help cure various human ills.
  1. Human genetic disorders can be treated by inserting genetic material into cells. What is this procedure called?
  2. What is the major difference between ex vitro and in vitro gene therapy?
  3. What type of organism is commonly used to insert genes into human cells?
Summaries of major points:
  1. Gene therapy inserts healthy genes
  2. Genetic disorders
  3. Cancer
  4. Other illnesses
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