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An Introduction to the World's Oceans, 10/e
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The Chemistry of Seawater

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Salinity provides a measure of the inorganic solids dissolved in seawater. Using information from the link above, describe three ways that salinity can be monitored in the ocean.
Oceanographers now routinely measure the amount of CO2 entering or leaving the ocean to track the interplay between physical processes like upwelling and downwelling, and biological processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. This can be done by comparing fCO2 (a measure of the amount of CO2) in air and water samples. On the map, click on "Equatorial Pacific Ocean." Select different transects across the map to see how fCO2 varies from east to west and throughout the year. Determine whether cold or warm water has a higher fCO2. Why might this be the case? What processes lead to higher fCO2? What processes decrease fCO2?