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Master Glossary
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Long-term goal:  Goal you want to accomplish during your lifetime.
Intermediate goal:  Goal you want to accomplish in the next 3 years
Short-term goal:  Goal you want to accomplish in the next 3 to 6 monts.
Study schedule:  Weekly schedule with specific times set aside for studying.
Monthly assignment calendar:  Calendar showing test dates and due dates in all courses for each month of a semester.
Predicting:  Anticipating what is coming next as you read.
Monitoring your comprehension:  Evaluating your understanding as you read and correcting the problem whenever you realize that you are not comprehending.
Context clues:  Words in a sentence or paragraph that help the reader deduce (reason out) the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
Word-structure clue:  Roots, prefixes, and suffixes that help you determine a word's meaning. Word structure clues are also known as word part clues.
Root:  Base word that has a meaning of its own.
Prefix:  Word part attached to the beginning of a root word that adds its meaning to that of the base word.
Suffix:  Word part attached to the end of a root word.
Etymology:  The origin and history of a word.
Denotation:  Literal, explicit meaning of a word — its dictionary definition.
Connotation:  Additional, nonliteral meaning associated with a word.
Figurative language:  Words that create unusual comparisons or vivid pictures in the reader's mind. Figurative language is also called figures of speech.
Metaphor:  Figure of speech suggesting a comparison between two essentially dissimilar things, usually by saying that one of them is the other.
Simile:  Figure of speech presenting a comparison between two essentially dissimilar things by saying that one of them is like the other.
Hyperbole:  Figure of speech using obvious exaggerations for emphasis and effect.
Personification:  Figure of speech in which nonhuman or nonliving things are given human traits or attributes.
Preparing to read:  Reviewing the material, assessing your prior knowledge, and planning your reading and study time.
Previewing:  Examining material, prior to reading it, in order to determine its topic and organization.
Assessing your prior knowledge:  Determining what you already know about the topic.
Topic:  Word, name, or phrase that tells who or what the author is writing about. The topic is also known as the subject, or subject matter.
Stated main idea sentence:  The sentence in a paragraph that contains both the topic and the author's single most important point about the topic. A stated main idea sentence is also known as the topic sentence.
Supporting details:  Additional information in the paragraph that helps you understand the main idea completely. Supporting details are also known as support or details.
Paraphrasing:  Restating an author's material in your own words.
Major details:  Details that directly support the main idea. Major details are also known as primary details.
Minor details:  Details that support other details. Minor details are also known as secondary details.
Writing patterns:  Ways authors organize the information they present. Writing patterns are also known as organizational patterns, patterns of development, rhetorical patterns and thinking patterns.
List pattern:  A group of items presented in no specific order since the order is unimportant. The list pattern is also known as listing pattern.
Sequence pattern:  A list of items presented in a specific order because the order is important. The sequence pattern is also known as time order, chronological order, a process, or a series.
Definition pattern:  Pattern presenting the meaning of an important term discussed throughout a passage.
Comparison-contrast pattern:  Similarities (comparisons) between two or more things are presented, differences (contrasts) between two or more things are presented, or both similarities and differences are presented. The comparison-contrast pattern is also known as ideas in opposition.
Cause-effect pattern:  Reasons (causes) and results (effects) of events or conditions are presented.
Mixed pattern:  Combination of two or more writing patterns in the same paragraph or passage.
Critical reading:  Gaining insights and understanding that go beyond comprehending the topic, main idea, and supporting details.
Purpose:  An author's reason for writing.
Intended audience:  People an author has in mind as his or her audience.
Point of view:  An author's position (opinion) on an issue. Point of view is also known as the author's argument or author's bias.
Author's bias:  The side of an issue an author favors.
Tone:  Manner of writing (choice of words and style) that reveals an author's attitude towards a topic.
Intended meaning:  What an author wants readers to understand even when his or her words seem to be saying something different.
Critical Thinking:  Thinking about something in an organized way in order to evaluate it accurately. Critical thinking is also referred to as reasoning or critical analysis.
Fact:  Something that can be proved to exist or to have happened.
Opinion:  Something that cannot be proved or disproved: a judgment or a belief.
Inference:  A logical conclusion based on what an author has stated.
Conclusion:  A decision that is reached after thoughtful consideration of information the author presents.
Deductive reasoning:  A process of reasoning in which a general principle is applied to a specific situation.
Inductive reasoning:  A process of reasoning in which a general principle is developed from a set of specific instances.
Author's argument:  The author's position on an issue. The author's argument is also known as the author's point of view.
Author's bias:  The side of an issue an author favors.
Author's assumption:  Something the author takes for granted without proof.
Propaganda devices:  Techniques authors use in order to unfairly influence the reader to accept their point of view.
Selectivity:  Identifying main ideas and important supporting details. First of three essential study strategies.
Organization:  Arranging main ideas and supporting details in a meaningful way. Second of three essential study strategies.
Rehearsal:  Saying or writing material to transfer it into long-term memory. Third of three essential study strategies.
Textbook feature:  Device used to emphasize important material and show how it is organized.
Preface:  Introductory section in which authors tell readers about the book.
Part opening:  Textbook feature that introduces a section (part) consisting of several chapters.
Chapter outline:  Textbook feature at the beginning of a chapter, listing the topics or headings in order of their appearance.
Chapter objective:  Textbook feature at the beginning of a chapter, telling you what you should know or be able to do after studying the chapter.
Chapter introduction:  Textbook feature at the beginning of a chapter, describing the overall purpose and major topics.
Graphic aid:  Visual explanation of concepts and relationships.
Vocabulary aids:  Textbook devices that highlight important terms and definitions.
Chapter summary:  Textbook feature in which the author collects and condenses the most essential ideas.
Appendix:  Section at the end of a book that includes supplemental material or specialized information.
Bibliography:  List of the sources from which the author of the text has drawn information.
Index:  Alphabetical listing of topics and names in a textbook, with page numbers, usually appearing at the end of the book.
Underlining and highlighting:  Techniques for marking topics, main ideas, and definitions.
Annotation:  Explanatory notes the reader writes in the margins of a textbook to help organize and remember information.
Outlining:  Formal way of organizing main ideas and supporting details to show relationships among them.
Mapping:  Informal way of organizing main ideas and supporting details by using boxes, circles, lines, arrows, etc.
Summary:  Single-paragraph condensation of all the main ideas presented in a longer passage.
Long-term memory:  Permanent memory.
Short-term memory:  Temporary memory.
Rehearsal:  Steps taken to transfer information into long-term memory; techniques include saying the information aloud and writing it down.
Distributed practice:  Study sessions that are spaced out over time; a more efficient study method than massed practice.
Test review card:  Index card with an important question on the front and the answer on the back.
Test review sheet:  Single sheet of paper consolidating and summarizing on its front and back the most important information to be covered on a test.

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