Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 19: Cellular Mechanisms of Development

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 19
  • In general terms, compare and contrast plant and animal developmental processes.
  • Understand the stages of development, from cleavage to organogenesis, in a model vertebrate.
  • Describe the stages of development in a representative insect from the influence of maternal genes to metamorphosis.
  • Explain the stages of development in a typical plant from early divisions through morphogenesis.
  • Know how cell movement and cadherins are involved in the developmental process.
  • Understand the process of induction and the importance of cell-cell interactions.
  • Explain the role of organizers in animal development.
  • Define and compare determination, differentiation, and commitment.
  • Explain the reversibility of determination using the cloned sheep Dolly as an example.
  • Understand pattern formation in Drosophila and the involvement of positional labels and the syncytial blastoderm.
  • Know the importance of homeotic genes.
  • Know why programmed cell death is necessary and differentiate between necrosis and apoptosis.
  • Describe the four model developmental systems and their representative specimen.
  • Compare the four major theories of aging.
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