Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 2
  • Know the structure of an atom.
  • Differentiate between atomic number and atomic mass.
  • Understand the importance of and the differences between ions and isotopes of an element.
  • Know what determines the chemical identity of a given element.
  • Understand how molecules undergo reduction and oxidation reactions.
  • Water spontaneously dissociates into H+ and OH– ions and is the basis of most buffering systems.
  • Understand what controls the combination of elements into molecules.
  • Know the characteristics of the various bonds found in living organisms.
  • Explain why water is the essence of life as we know it.
  • Describe pH in biological and mathematical terms. Know some values for household solutions.
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