Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 30: Overview of Green Plants

Pre Test

Red, brown, and green algae all have very similar chloroplast lineages, and yet only green algae are included in the lineage of Viridiplantae (land plants). How is this possible? (p. 582)
A)Chloroplasts are easily damaged through mutation, and therefore have very little changes in their genomes or morphology over time.
B)All these algae evolved from fungi, which were progenitors to plants, and therefore they have similar features. Only green algae gave rise to plants, though.
C)Multiple endosymbiosis events occurred: some of the descendants of the primary endosymbiotic event where a cyanobacterium was first taken up were themselves taken up in red and brown algae ancestors.
D)Because they have small, circular DNA genomes, chloroplasts are particularly promiscuous and can move from organelle to organelle, and species to species.
E)Horizontal gene transfer often occurs in organelles with their own DNA, leading to a homogenization of genomes such as we find in red, brown, and green algae.
What process creates spores during the alternation of generations life cycle pattern? (p. 583)
Which term might best describe the multicellular bodies during the life cycle of Ulva? (p. 585)
C)Heteromorphic alternation of generations
D)Isomorphic alternation of generations
E)Diploblastic body plan
Charophytes are aquatic. What evidence is there that they might share a recent link to terrestrial plants? (p. 585)
A)They contain chlorophyll a.
B)They use chlorophyll b.
C)They have similar sequence in their rRNA sequences.
D)Much of their DNA appears homologous.
E)All of the above support a link between Charophytes and land plants.
Sperm in bryophytes have flagella on them. What does this suggest as to the requirements for reproduction? (p. 588)
A)They need a layer of water which extends from where they are released to their destination.
B)They are closely related to many of the protista, most of which have flagella.
C)They represent a lineage very close to members of the kingdom Animalia, which have sperm that move using flagella.
D)In mosses, both sperm and egg can move toward each other using chemotaxis.
E)All of the above points are valid with respect to moss reproduction.
Why is heterospory considered to be an advanced character which enhances genetic diversity? (p. 590)
A)It is seen in all modern plants.
B)It allows for more differences between the haploid and diploid phases of the life cycle, as these are morphologically based on the spore they germinate from.
C)One type of spore eventually gives rise to sperm only, while another gives rise only to oocytes. This increases the likelihood of outcrossing.
D)All of the above are valid reasons for considering heterospory as an advanced character to increase genetic diversity.
E)None of the above are valid arguments for heterospory as an advanced character.
Vascular refinements allowed plants to grow taller because they no longer had to deal with diffusion to meet their metabolic demands. What other stress shaped plant life strategies as they became even taller? (p. 590)
A)They had to minimize the amount of UV radiation that they experienced due to their closer proximity to the sun.
B)They had to develop alternative methods of fixing carbon dioxide because the dry air above the ground poses problems.
C)By being taller, the plants become more conspicuous and therefore likely to be eaten by animals.
D)Spores would be scattered too widely and the community would become too dispersed for effective interbreeding.
E)Reproductive cells could no longer rely on flagella for transport of the male gametes because of the lack of water continuity from top to bottom of the plant.
Ferns appear to be the most advanced of the seedless vascular plants. What feature provided the foundation for establishment of seeds in more advanced plants? (p. 593)
A)The multicellular archegonium provided nutrition and protection of the embryo.
B)The vascularization of leaves provided efficient distribution of nutrients, allowing embryo development to occur more efficiently than in nonvascular plants.
C)Development of sori on fronds created protected surfaces that eventually gave rise to fruits and seeds.
D)The male gamete in ferns does not require water to move, and so formed the basis for pollen structure, which can use air currents to move.
E)Ferns rely on insect pollinators, a feature that the higher plants have enhanced over evolutionary time.
Which feature of the male gametophyte eliminated the requirement of water for fertilization to occur? (p. 593)
B)Reduction of flagella
C)Loss of flagella
D)Use of a pollen tube
E)Production of a seed coat
Cycads have their leaves clustered at the top and often are dissected into leaflets, superficially resembling a fern. What criterion might you apply to distinguish a cycad from a fern? (p. 595)
A)Cycads have sori on the top of their leaves; ferns have them on the bottom.
B)If you find a flower on the plant, it must be a cycad as ferns don't flower.
C)A cone containing seeds at the top of the plant would make it a cycad as ferns don't make cones or seeds.
D)All of the above would be valid criteria to distinguish between them.
E)None of the above would allow you to distinguish between them.
Double fertilization produces (p. 600)
A)two embryos.
B)two spores, which then undergo meiosis to make several embryos with different genotypes.
C)two nucelli, which develop into megagametophytes.
D)an embryo and a triploid endosperm.
E)an abnormal, very large zygote which sometimes dies early in development.
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