Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 35: Vertebrates

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 35
  • Indicate the four principal characteristics of chordates.
  • Compare the two non-vertebrate chordates with each other and to the vertebrates.
  • Indicate the major characteristics possessed by all vertebrates and those features that separate them.
  • Understand how the jawless fish differ from all other vertebrates.
  • Explain the value of the Chondrichthyes skeleton and indicate the structure(s) seen in the bony fish. Explain how the bony fish evolved to counteract the comparative disadvantage of their skeleton.
  • Know the characteristics required to evolve a terrestrial form of life from an aquatic one.
  • Understand how amphibians differ from the three other classes of terrestrial vertebrates.
  • Describe how the reptiles are evolutionarily more advanced than amphibians and why they are better adapted for a truly terrestrial existence.
  • Differentiate between endothermy and ectothermy, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and indicate which classes of vertebrates fit into each category.
  • Understand the special adaptations found in the birds.
  • Differentiate among monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals.
  • Review the differences found prosimians versus anthropoids.
  • Contrast the differences seen in Australopithecine and Homo species.
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