Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)
How Cells Harvest Energy
Learning OutcomesChapter 7
- Understand the value of ATP in biological metabolic reactions.
- Describe two ways in which cells generate ATP and indicate which is a more efficient process.
- Know the location of glycolysis in a generalized eukaryotic cell.
- Understand the differences in the glycolytic reaction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.
- Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at its start and its end, as well as its net versus total ATP production.
- Understand the mechanisms that recycle postglycolytic NADH molecules under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.
- Explain why the electron-carrier molecule produced in glycolysis and the two kinds of molecules produced in the Krebs cycle differ from one other in the number of ATP each generates.
- Compare the overall energy efficiency of the complete aerobic degradation of one molecule of glucose with the efficiency of the glycolytic process alone.
- Understand how proteins and fats are metabolized.
- Compare the number of ATPs produced in the degradation of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
- Describe alcoholic fermentation in terms of electron acceptors, ATP yield, and end products.
- Explain the process of anaerobic respiration as it occurs in human muscle.
- Describe the 6 major innovations that highlight the evolution of metabolism.