Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 7: How Cells Harvest Energy

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 7
  • Understand the value of ATP in biological metabolic reactions.
  • Describe two ways in which cells generate ATP and indicate which is a more efficient process.
  • Know the location of glycolysis in a generalized eukaryotic cell.
  • Understand the differences in the glycolytic reaction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.
  • Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at its start and its end, as well as its net versus total ATP production.
  • Understand the mechanisms that recycle postglycolytic NADH molecules under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.
  • Explain why the electron-carrier molecule produced in glycolysis and the two kinds of molecules produced in the Krebs cycle differ from one other in the number of ATP each generates.
  • Compare the overall energy efficiency of the complete aerobic degradation of one molecule of glucose with the efficiency of the glycolytic process alone.
  • Understand how proteins and fats are metabolized.
  • Compare the number of ATPs produced in the degradation of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
  • Describe alcoholic fermentation in terms of electron acceptors, ATP yield, and end products.
  • Explain the process of anaerobic respiration as it occurs in human muscle.
  • Describe the 6 major innovations that highlight the evolution of metabolism.
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