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emotions  Subjective reactions to something in the environment that are usually experienced cognitively as either pleasant or unpleasant, that are generally accompanied by physiological changes, and that are often expressed in some of visible behavior.
emotional display rules  Rules that dictate which emotions one may appropriately display in particular situations.
reflex smile  A newborn infant's smile, which appears to reflect some internal stimulus, such as a change in the infant's level of arousal, rather than an external stimulus such as another person's behavior.
stranger distress  A fear of strangers that typically emerges in infants around the age of 9 months.
social referencing  The process of "reading" emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in an uncertain situation.
separation protest  An infant's distress reaction to being separated from his or her mother, which typically peaks at about 15 months of age.
emotional script  A complex scheme that enables a child to identify the emotional reaction that is likely to accompany a particular sort of event.
attachment  A strong emotional bond that forms between infant and caregiver in the second half of the child's first year.
psychoanalytic theory of attachment  The Freudian theory that babies become attached first to the mother's breast and then to the mother herself as a source of oral gratification.
learning theory of attachment  The theory that infants become attached to the mother because she provides food, or primary reinforcement, and thus acquires secondary reinforcement properties.
secondary reinforcer  A person or other stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties by virtue of repeated association with a primary reinforcer.
cognitive developmental view of attachment  The view that to form attachments infants must both differentiate between mother and stranger and must understand that people exist independent of their interaction with them.
ethological theory of attachment  Bowlby's theory that attachment derives from the biological preparation of both infant and parents to respond to each other's behaviors in such a way that parents provide the infant with care and protection.
secure base  According to Ainsworth, a caregiver to whom an infant has formed an attachment and whom the child uses as a base from which to explore new things and a safe haven in times of stress.
strange situation  A testing scenario in which mother and child are separated and reunited several times and that enables investigators to assess the nature and quality of a mother-infant attachment relationship.
secure attachment  A kind of attachment displayed by babies who are secure enough to explore novel environments, who are minimally disturbed by brief separations from their mothers, and who greet them happily when they return.
insecure-avoidant attachment  A type of attachment shown by babies who seem not to be bothered by their mother's brief absence but specifically avoid them on their return, sometimes becoming visibly upset.
insecure-resistant attachment  A kind of attachment shown by babies who tend to become very upset at the departure of their mothers and who exhibit inconsistent behavior on their return, sometimes seeking contact, sometimes pushing their mothers away.
insecure-disorganized attachment  A type of attachment shown by babies who seem disorganized and disoriented when reunited with their mothers after a brief separation.
Attachment Q Sort(AQS)  An assessment method in which a caregiver or observer judges the quality of a child's behavior in naturalistic situations, often including brief separations from parents.
sensitive care  Caregiving that is consistent and responsive and that begins by allowing an infant to play in determining when feeding will begin and end and at what pace it will proceed.
interactive synchrony  A term that characterizes mother-infant interactions in which the mother constatntly adjusts her behavior to that of her baby, responding to and respecting his signals as to when he is ready for and wants engagement and interaction.
internal working model  According to Bowlby, a person's mental representation of himself as a child, his parents, and the nature of his interaction with his parents, as he reconstructs and interprets that interaction.

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