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In what order do emotional expressions likely occur in infants (earliest to latest)?
A)fear, guilt, joy
B)joy, fear, guilt
C)fear, joy, guilt
D)joy, guilt, fear

Which of the following is TRUE regarding children’s emotional expression?
A)Children are more accurate producing than recognizing facial expressions.
B)Children are more accurate recognizing facial expressions than producing their own facial expressions.
C)Production and recognition of facial expressions develop simultaneously.
D)Children cannot control their expressions until they are four years old.

What facial feature is the earliest effective elicitor of smiles in infants?
A)the nose
B)the eyes
C)the mouth
D)the cheeks

Which theory would describe attachment as an infant’s association of its mother with the reduction of its hunger drive?
A)cognitive developmental theory
B)psychoanalytic theory
C)learning theory
D)ethological theory

The ________ theory of attachment suggests the development of a mutual attachment where both the infant and the caregiver form attachments to each other.
A)cognitive developmental

Which is TRUE about securely attached versus insecurely attached children?
A)Securely attached children persist in problem-solving activities longer.
B)Securely attached children exhibit less empathy due to their high self-image.
C)Insecurely attached children are less aggressive.
D)Insecurely attached children are more socially competent.

Which of the following is NOT a factor that influences whether or not a child will fear a particular stranger?
A)distance from the stranger
B)the behavior of the stranger
C)the attractiveness of the stranger
D)the age of the stranger

Research has discovered that there are cross-cultural similarities in the ages at which infants and children develop certain fears. Such findings are typically seen as supporting the theory that fear development is a _________ phenomenon.
D)genetically determined

According to which theory does fear develop due to a neutral stimulus being paired with a naturally fearful stimulus?
D)genetic determinism

According to Harter, children are capable of understanding that two emotions can be elicited by the same target or event only after reaching what age?
A)18 years
B)11 years
C)8½ years
D)6 years

All but one of the following are thought to be a function of emotions in infancy and childhood?
A)Emotions regulate social distance.
B)Emotional displays are used to regulate conflict.
C)Emotional displays are the first step in language acquisition.
D)Emotions provide a means of gaining control over the social world.

Preschoolers who send clear emotional signals
A)are also skilled in judging emotional expressions.
B)have not yet developed the ability to judge emotional expressions of others.
C)tend to spend much time alone, away from social interactions.
D)will not benefit from increased social contact with peers.

One of the most difficult tasks for children to learn in the development of emotional expression is
A)the ability to mask emotions.
B)acquisition of the “display rules” of emotional expression.
C)the modulation of emotional expression.
D)intensification and deintensification of emotion.

The fact that term infants smile at about six weeks after birth and premature infants often smile later (in accordance with their gestational age at birth) suggests the influence of
A)learning factors.
B)innate factors.
C)environmental factors.
D)perceptual-recognition factors.

Morticia is 9 years old and has always done things independently. However, what her parents tend to find more bothersome is her total lack of concern about their approval or disapproval of the things she does. Morticia appears
A)to have developed a healthy attachment to her parents.
B)to have failed to develop an attachment to her parents.
C)to be redefining her attachment with her parents.
D)to be overly attached to her parents.

With which of the following adults is an infant most likely to form an attachment?
A)an unstimulating mother that provides routine physical care
B)a depressed, withdrawn father
C)a happy mother who responds inconsistently to the infant’s needs
D)an attentive, stimulating father

Studies on infant attachment have shown
A)that the early interactions between parent and child influence the quality of later attachment behaviors.
B)children and parents who had an insecure attachment relationship were found to engage in synchronous behaviors that were reciprocal and mutually rewarding.
C)parent-child attachment to be independent of other relationships in the family.
D)secure attachments to be frequent when marital adjustment was low.

Research in the area of individual differences in fear reactions among infants has shown
A)all children show distress to strangers whether they are shy or outgoing.
B)some infants may be more fearful than others and these are the shy, “behaviorally inhibited” children.
C)children’s initial reaction to strangers is one of curiosity.
D)all strangers scare children when they are between 7 and 9 months of age.

Younger children differ from older children in their understanding of guilt in that they (the younger children) focus on
A)biological urges.
B)situational factors.
C)personal responsibility.

The development of social, cognitive and emotional capacities
A)are clearly different areas of development and the development of one does not affect the other.
B)are primarily dependent on cognitive functioning levels.
C)are mutually interdependent.
D)are only dependent for the child’s social development.

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