Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 25: Evolution of Development

Pre Test

Some closely related species (e.g. sea urchins) have dramatically different patterns of development but have almost identical developmental genes. (p. 490)
The species Brassica oleracea is very variable. For example it includes cabbage and cauliflower. The differences are largely due to two genes. Why can a mutation in two genes have such a large phenotypic effect? (p. 492)
A)All mutations have large phenotypic effects.
B)The genes arrest crucial stages in development.
C)This is a very unusual species of plant.
D)none of the above
Mice and humans differ in only 300 out of about 20,000 genes. How can we account for the fact that mice and humans are so different? (p. 493 - 494)
A)The same genes are used for different functions.
B)Different genes are transcribed.
C)The timing of gene expression varies.
D)all of the above
E)none of the above
Consider structures that are homologous or analogous. Are the same or different genes regulating developmental pathways likely to be involved in each case? (p. 495)
A)same for homologous, same for analogous
B)different for homologous, different for analogous
C)same for homologous, different for analogous
D)different for homologous, same for analogous
In the flowering plants a gene paleoAP3 arose by gene duplication. This gene then duplicated in a lineage called the eudicots to give the gene AP3. This lineage is also characterised by the independent origin of a precise pattern of petal development. The inference is that: (p. 496)
A)AP3 plays an important role in petal development.
B)the origin of AP3 and petal development is a coincidence.
C)without further investigation it is not possible to distinguish between a and b.
D)a single gene can never have this great an effect.
Why are model organisms, such as yeast, the mouse and Drosophila, particularly useful for determining the function of a gene once its sequence has been determined? (p. 497)
A)They have well-known genomes.
B)They are easy to manipulate in the laboratory.
C)It is possible to create transgenic organism that express foreign genes.
D)They have short life-cycles.
E)all of the above
The eyes of a vertebrate, an insect, a Mollusc and a Planarian are very different in construction. This morphological evidence suggests that the eye evolved independently at least twenty times.
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