Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 3: The Chemical Building Blocks of Life

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 3
  • Identify the four macromolecules. Know their basic chemical compositions and how each is important to living organisms.
  • Know how various molecular subunits polymerize to form chains of organic macromolecules.
  • Understand the consequences of dehydration and hydrolysis reactions and how they are dependent upon water.
  • Know the importance of an amino acid R group.
  • Describe the six levels of protein structure and the forces that help maintain each level.
  • Understand how chaperonins are involved in protein folding and unfolding.
  • Understand the difference between a helix and a double helix in DNA and RNA.
  • Compare DNA and RNA in terms of chemical composition and basic cellular function.
  • Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats, in the types of bonds they possess, their relative amounts of hydrogen, their energy content, and their consistency at room temperature.
  • Know how and why monosaccharides combine to form the various common disaccharides and polysaccharides.
  • Compare cellulose and chitin to one another and to other polysaccharides in terms of their chemical composition and their digestibility.
  • Contrast lipids and starches with respect to their solubility in water and their efficiency in storing chemical energy.
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