Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 36: Plant Form

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 36
  • Understand the nature and importance of the three kinds of plant meristem cells.
  • Indicate the identity and function of the three basic tissue types in plants.
  • Explain primary growth and understand how it differs from secondary growth.
  • Describe each of the plant cell types, its function, and indicate whether the cell is capable of further division.
  • Know what types of cells are present in xylem and phloem and how each functions.
  • Describe the four zones of growth in roots and how growth occurs in each zone. What different root morphologies exist?
  • Identify the most obvious external components of stems. Are all stem morphologies identical?
  • Understand how leaf growth differs from that of roots and stems. Are all leaf morphologies identical?
  • Structurally differentiate among monocot, herbaceous eudicot, and woody eudicot stems, and between monocot and eudicot roots.
  • Understand the roles of vascular cambium and cork cambium in secondary growth. Where and how do these tissues differentiate?
  • Understand what wood is, how it is formed, and what is indicated by its annual growth rings.
  • Describe the structure of a typical leaf and how that structure relates to the process of photosynthesis.
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