Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 36: Plant Form

Pre Test

Meristems act as origins of new tissues in a plant. What is the specific role of a lateral meristem? (p. 720)
A)These give rise to leaves, which occur on each side of the shoot apical meristem.
B)The lateral meristem is involved in the thickening of roots and shoots.
C)Leaves are able to expand to form a sheet through the action of lateral meristems.
D)Branches sprout out sideways through the activity of lateral meristems.
E)Formation of large sideways expansion of plants occurs from lateral meristems, leading to the "bushy" appearance created by adding large boughs.
Why does girdling a plant (removing a cross-section of tissue from the stem exterior to the vascular cambium) eventually kill it? (p. 726)
A)The phloem resides outside the vascular and so there is no conduit of material from the leaves to the roots.
B)By removing material outside the vascular cambium, there will be no xylem or phloem to provide nutrition to distant parts of the plant.
C)Water won't be able to travel from the soil to the leaves because vascular tissue was removed.
D)Removing so much material will result in infection that inevitably kills the plant.
E)Having a ring of damaged tissue extend the entire girth of the stem results in excessive energy being devoted to repair. This unfocused response means that resources are wasted trying to fix all the hurt areas at once.
Why is the Golgi body so important to root cap cells? (p. 727)
A)The Golgi has ribosomes within it so that it can manufacture quantities of protein necessary to speed repair of its cells, which are easily damaged.
B)The vesicles which come from the Golgi are released directly to the exterior of the cell that coat the root and prevent damage.
C)Golgi membranes are worn off during root growth, so many of them are required to replace lost members.
D)Secretions from the rough ER pass through the Golgi and accumulate in the cell walls to both lubricate the root and promote the growth of symbiotic soil fungi.
E)The Golgi bodies sense gravity using starch granules and so having many of them present speeds sensing and responding to changes in the gravitational direction.
Which of the following modified stem forms is correctly matched with its description? (p. 734)
A)Bulb; horizontal stem which grows under the soil.
B)Tuber; a flattened, photosynthetic stem resembling a leaf.
C)Corm; an underground stem which resembles a bulb but has no fleshy leaves.
D)Stolon; an accumulation of storage materials at the tip of a rhizome.
E)Tendril; a horizontal stem that has long internodes and grows above the soil surface (similar to a runner).
Which of the following modified leaf forms is correctly matched with its description? (p. 738)
A)Bract; a cone-shaped leaf with transparent tips. It remains buried but admits light to its center.
B)Insectivorous leaf; produces tiny, complete plantlets along its margin.
C)Window leaf; a leaf produced in the shade which has a large surface area but is thin with little mesophyll.
D)Reproductive leaf; a leaf which traps insects.
E)Spine; a leaf with reduced surface area to combat water loss.
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