Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 4: Cell Structure

Post Test

If a cell has a radius of 8 µm, its volume will be 2144 µm3 and its surface area will be 804 µm2. Its surface area / volume ratio will be ____, and if it grows so that its radius gains 2 µm, we expect this ratio to _____ (p. 60).
A)2.7 / decrease
B)0.38 / decrease
C)2.7 / increase
D)0.38 / increase
E)1.0 / stay the same
Which of the following does not correctly describe the relationship between archaea and "true" bacteria? (p. 64)
A)Archaea are more closely related to eukaryotes than are bacteria.
B)Archaea are often more difficult to culture under laboratory conditions than bacteria, and therefore less is known about them.
C)Archaea and bacteria use different machinery for DNA replication and protein synthesis.
D)Archaea are more primitive than bacteria.
E)Bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall, while archaea use different proteins and polysaccharides.
Which of the following analogies is the best comparison between typical prokaryotic cells and typical eukaryotic cells? (p. 63)
A)Prokaryotic cells are much like a one-room efficiency apartment where all activities occur in the same room. Eukaryotic cells are more like a multi-room luxury apartment where the rooms are designed for specific activities.
B)Prokaryotic cells are like old-fashioned cars; they eventually get where they're going but do so slowly, while eukaryotic cells are like sports cars, which move quickly and with style.
C)Prokaryotic cells are similar to one-person explorers in that they have the ability to do many tasks like first aid, cooking, and mapping. Eukaryotic cells are more like physician specialists who have specific talents in only a few areas.
D)Prokaryotes are like high school science teachers who teach many disciplines in science. Eukaryotes are like university faculty members who know a lot about specific types of science.
E)Eukaryotic cells are like a brick building built from many bricks (which represent prokaryotic cells).
The reason we conceptualize ER, Golgi, transport vesicles and the plasma membrane as a single system (the Endomembrane system) is because: (p. 71)
A)They all consist of membranes
B)They represent a physically and functionally connected group of organelles
C)They are found inside the cytoplasm
D)They can be removed from the cell and will continue to function normally
E)All of them are involved in protein manufacture and distribution
The term "serial endosymbiosis" refers to consecutive events in which a free-living bacterium was incorporated within the cytoplasm of the host cell. The evidence supports establishment of mitochondria before chloroplasts. Which of the following would likely have occurred if chloroplasts had been established first? (p. 76)
A)O2 levels would have become depleted a few billion years ago.
B)Animals would not have evolved.
C)Most eukaryotic cells would have the ability to photosynthesize, while a smaller subset would consume oxygen during energy harvesting.
D)Oxidative metabolism would be very common, while the ability to use light energy would occur in only specialized, ancient eukaryotes.
E)All of the above would be possible.
Eukaryotes must organize their microtubules, especially during cell division. What region is responsible for serving as the microtubule-organizing center for ALL eukaryotic cells? (p. )
A)the nuclear membrane
B)pericentriolar material
Which of the following is a plant material that would be farthest from the cell membrane of a plant cell? (p. 81)
A)Middle lamella
B)Primary cell wall
C)Secondary cell wall
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