Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 42: Plant Reproduction

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 42
  • Describe how plants produce flowers in response to environmental cues.
  • Explain meristems, competence, phase change, photoperiodism, the roles of different hormones, and how these different factors interact in the flowering process.
  • Describe how flowers evolved. What are the parts of a complete flower?
  • Discuss the three known genetically regulated pathways for flowering. What is the role of phytochrome in these pathways? List the evolutionary advantages provided by angiosperm flowers.
  • Describe the two major evolutionary changes that led to the diversity of flower phenotypes.
  • Differentiate between pollination and fertilization.
  • Describe the processes of pollen formation and embryo sac formation.
  • Explain fertilization in angiosperms.
  • Understand the advantages of asexual reproduction in plants. What is apomixis?
  • Name and describe the parts of a flower. Which part becomes the seed?
  • Explain the life span of annual, biennial, and perennial plants.
  • Differentiate between complete and incomplete flowers, and between monoecious and dioecious plants. Which arrangement promotes outcrossing?
  • Understand the advantages of asexual reproduction in plants.
  • Differentiate among annual, biennial, and perennial plants.
  • Understand the process of abscission.
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