Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 45: Sensory Systems

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 45
  • Describe how stimulation, transduction, transmission, and interpretation are necessary for neurosensory communication in the central nervous system.
  • Differentiate between interoception and exteroception and indicate the simplest kind of receptor found in each.
  • Briefly review how receptor potentials are formed as related to a generalized sensory receptor.
  • Describe receptors that detect temperature, pain, touch and pressure, muscle length and tension, and blood pressure.
  • Compare the senses of taste and smell in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates.
  • Describe the chemoreceptors that sense chemical characteristics of body fluids.
  • Explain the purpose for and the operation of a fish’s lateral line system.
  • Compare the invertebrate and vertebrate sensors responsible for gravity and angular acceleration.
  • Compare hearing in fishes and terrestrial vertebrates.
  • Understand how the structures of the middle and inner ear result in the sense of hearing.
  • Describe the nature of vision in terms of its stimulus, biochemistry, the structure of rod and cone cells, and the mechanical design of the vertebrate eye.
  • Explain sensory transduction as it occurs in vertebrate photoreceptors.
  • Understand how vision in prey animals differs from vision in their predators.
  • Illustrate the unique sensory systems that have evolved in response to specific aquatic and terrestrial habitats.
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