Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)
The Endocrine System
Learning OutcomesChapter 46
- Compare the action of a typical hormone with that of a neuron.
- Know the four chemical classes of molecular messengers and how each operates.
- Define paracrine regulation and give several examples.
- Understand the two primary mechanisms of hormone action associated with whether or not the hormone itself enters the cell proper.
- Differentiate between the actions of the cAMP and IP3/Ca++ second messenger systems.
- Identify and describe the functions of the hormones that are released by the posterior pituitary gland. Know where these hormones are synthesized.
- Identify and describe the effects of the hormones that are released by the anterior pituitary gland. Know what stimulates their production and where they are produced.
- Understand how the regulation of GH, PRL, and MSH differs from that of TSH, ACTH, LH, and FSH.
- Describe and give an example of negative feedback inhibition in the endocrine system.
- Know what hormones are produced by the thyroid and what each does.
- Know the function(s) of PTH and in which endocrine gland this hormone is produced.
- Describe the anatomical and endocrinological division of the adrenal gland, the hormones produced and their function(s).
- Know why the pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland and how its secretions are involved with the regulation of blood glucose.
- Identify and describe the actions of several hormones produced by organs not commonly considered to be endocrine glands.