Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 50: Temperature, Osmotic Regulation and the Urinary System

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 50
  • Understand why homeostasis is a vital function of the human body.
  • Differentiate between positive and negative feedback loops. Give examples of each.
  • Pick one example of a negative homeostatic regulating process and explain how this system maintains physiological normalcy.
  • Compare osmoconformer and osmoregulator water balance.
  • Compare the excretory systems of flatworms, earthworms, and insects.
  • Describe the structure of a typical vertebrate nephron, the process of filtration and indicate which regions are associated with reabsorption or secretion.
  • Compare the efficiency of water reabsorption in freshwater, bony marine, and cartilaginous fishes; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
  • Describe the internal structure of a typical mammalian kidney.
  • Understand the process of filtration in the human kidney especially as it relates to the materials that enter and leave proximal tubule and the loop of Henle.
  • Compare the osmotic condition of the renal cortex to the renal medulla and understand how it affects reabsorption of water.
  • Discuss hypothalamic and adrenal regulation of kidney function
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