Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 1: The Science of Biology

Post Test

Which of the following series represents levels of organization ranked in order from smallest to largest? (p. 2)
A)Organelle - Molecule - Organism - Ecosystem - Biosphere
B)Molecule - Organelle - Tissue - Population - Ecosystem
C)Organism - Species - Ecosystem - Community - Biosphere
D)Molecule - Atom - Community - Population - Ecosystem
E)Organ system - Organelle - Organism - Ecosystem
Why are alternative hypotheses valuable during scientific investigation? (p. 6)
A)They provide useful "fall-back" positions to test that provide alternative explanations for natural phenomenae, especially if the currently tested hypothesis is falsified.
B)They allow for more data to be collected during scientific experimentation.
C)They allow different laws of chemistry or physics to be applied to the same problem.
D)They guarantee that the answers given by scientific exploration will be true.
E)They ensure that there will be no ambiguous results during experimentation, particularly when the hypothesis is falsified.
How was Thomas Malthus important in shaping Darwin's proposal for the mechanism of evolution? (p. 9)
A)He noticed that populations in nature are always growing, rather than staying constant over time.
B)His atheism made him view the world in a way that was not influenced by God or creationism.
C)His proposals of evolution paved the way for lines of thought that Darwin knew to be radical for its time.
D)His essays outlined how populations tend to increase in number geometrically (2, 4, 8…), while cultivated resources increase arithmetically (1, 2, 3…).
E)All of the above are reasons that influenced Darwin.
Which of the following statements is best in agreement with the idea of emergent properties? (p.14)
A)"Survival of the fittest".
B)"Descent with modification".
C)"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts".
D)"Cells are life's basic units".
E)"The form of a biological structure implies its function, and vice-versa".
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