Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 21: The Evidence for Evolution

Post Test

Why is variation in beak size of the Galapagos finch Geospiza fortis maintained in the population on Daphne Major? (p .417)
A)genetic drift
B)beak size varies randomly
C)selection pressures vary every few years depending on rainfall
D)migration of birds among islands
E)a combination of all these factors
The melanic form of the Peppered moth is caused by a dominant allele. This increased from being very rare before 1850 to comprise over 90% of the population in industrial areas by the 1950's. Would a similar increase have occurred if this melanism was caused by a recessive allele? (p. 418)
A)No, it would not have increased at all.
B)Yes, but it would have taken much longer.
C)Yes, but it would have taken just slightly longer.
D)It's impossible to tell.
Why is artificial selection good evidence that natural selection can produce major evolutionary changes? (p. 421)
A)It is not.
B)There are larger differences between breeds (e.g dogs) than there are between related species.
C)It shows that selection can act very quickly on a geological time scale.
D)both b and c
E)none of the above
Why are specimens such as Archaeopteryx, which is considered to be an intermediate between dinosaurs and birds, not intermediate for all characters? (p. 423)
A)it cannot be a true intermediate
B)different characters evolve at different rates
C)it is a hybrid between a bird and a dinosaur
D)impossible to tell.
The existence of "imperfectly designed" characters is evidence for evolution: (p. 427 )
Consider two pairs of species of beetles: A & B, and C & D. A and B are closely related but occur on different continents, while C and D are distantly related but occur in the same geographic area and in the same habitat. What do you predict about the phenotypic similarity of the pairs? (p. 429)
A)A & B similar to each other; C & D different from each other
B)C & D similar to each other; A & B different from each other
C)A & B different each other; C & D similar to each other
D)A & B similar to each other; C & D more similar to each other
E)none of the above
Orb weaving spiders spin complex webs for capturing prey. By observing living, related spiders that build less complex forms of silk structures, it is thought that the complex orb web evolved in a series of steps. What do you predict about the less complex structures: (p. 430)
A)none of them are functional in any way
B)some of them function somewhat, but not perfectly for prey capture and some have other, completely different functions
C)all of them must function for prey capture
D)none of the above
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