Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 22: The Origin of Species

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 22
  • Define and differentiate between sympatric and allopatric speciation.
  • Be able to describe and give an example of instantaneous speciation and polyploidy.
  • Know what is meant by the Biological Species Concept and explain why the controversy of hybrid species surrounds it.
  • Distinguish between the Biological Species Concept and the Ecological Species Concept.
  • Differentiate between prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms.
  • Distinguish between the three types of postzygotic isolating mechanisms.
  • List the six predominant prezygotic isolating mechanisms and give examples of each.
  • Give two ideas that may be explanations for the development of reproductive isolating mechanisms.
  • Explain how geographical isolation influences allopatric speciation.
  • Give examples of how clusters of species reflect rapid evolution through adaptive radiations and character displacement.
  • Develop an appreciation for the importance of the Cambrian explosion and mass extinction events as they have led to species diversity.
  • Describe how extinctions during the Cretaceous led to increased opportunities for mammal diversity.
  • Differentiate between gradualism and punctuated equilibria.
  • Be able to speculate on some possible outcomes of the human species evolutionary future.
  • Describe how the influences of humans can affect the future of evolution.
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