Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 22: The Origin of Species

Pre Test

Any concept or definition of a species must be able to account for: (p .434)
A)geographical variation within a species.
B)the vast number of species that exist.
C)the fact that species go extinct.
D)the fact that different species living in the same area do not interbreed.
E)both a and d
The biological species concept is based on the principle that the gene pools of different species remain distinct. This concept predicts that hybridization should never occur. (p. 437)
If two populations of a species have been isolated for a period of time, what will occur if they come into contact? (p. 438)
A)They will interbreed freely with each other.
B)They may not mate at all with each other.
C)They may mate with each other, but the offspring will less viable than either parent.
D)All of the above are possible.
Natural selection is more likely to play a role in the evolution of reproductive isolation than genetic drift because: (p. 440)
A)genetic drift will only be effective in small populations.
B)differentiation will occur very slowly with genetic drift.
C)differentiation will occur much more rapidly under natural selection.
D)all of the above
Parapatric speciation has been proposed as an intermediate form of speciation, which occurs when a population enters a new habitat that is still within the range of the parental species. What do you think that the consequence(s) of this would be? (p. 440)
A)There would still be the same difficulties as with sympatric speciation.
B)Selection pressures would differ and favor divergence.
C)Genetic drift would be increased in the peripheral population.
D)both b and c
Adaptive radiation "is the existence of groups of closely related species that have recently evolved from a common ancestor by adapting to different parts of the environment." What is the main reason adaptive radiation occurs on volcanic island archipelagos? (p. 443)
A)There are many niches available when the islands are formed.
B)Adaptive radiation only occurs on islands.
C)Genetic drift will cause the populations to differentiate due to the small population sizes.
D)both a and c
It is commonly accepted that evolutionary change and speciation can either be gradual or happen in bursts followed by long periods of stasis. (p. 448)
Extinction and speciation events have always been in equilibrium. (p.448)
What result(s) of human activity is/are most likely to affect the future evolution of other species? (p. 450)
B)habitat fragmentation
C)damming of rivers
D)both a and b
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