Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 31: Fungi

Post Test

What is it about mitosis in fungi which is distinct between them and animals? (p. 604)
A)They all have a dikaryon stage in which nuclei exist separately for a period after gametes fuse.
B)Chromosomes are relocated without the aid of a mitotic spindle.
C)Sister chromatids are not joined by their centromere.
D)Cells never become differentiated: all have the same morphology.
E)The spindle apparatus forms within the nuclear membrane to separate chromosomes.
Where does a fungus perform digestion of its food? (p. 606)
A)In small pits along its surface
B)Extracellularly though secretion of enzymes
C)Depending on the fungus, digestion may occur in the gills or the stipe.
D)Food is internalized using phagocytosis, and lysosomes effect intracellular digestion of particles.
E)Each of these strategies is demonstrated by various fungi.
What technique(s) is/are shedding light on the true evolutionary relationships between various fungal groups, allowing us to determine whether current groupings are monophyletic or not? (p. 608)
A)Closer investigation of sexual reproduction strategies
B)Analysis of growth habit and location
C)Evaluation of specifics for how cell division is carried out
D)They can be categorized on the types of food they can eat.
E)Molecular data show connections to recent common ancestors.
Chytrids demonstrate multicellular diploid and multicellular stages. This form of life cycle is called (p. 608)
B)alternation of generations
C)gametophyte / sporophyte switching
In the life cycle of zygomycetes, where might you find diploid cells? (p. 609)
A)Within the zygosporangium
B)In the sporangiophore
C)In the mycelium near rapidly-growing regions
D)Next to the food substrate
E)Most of the cells in zygomycetes are diploid.
An arbuscular mycorrhizal association is characterized by what? (p. 610)
A)Secretion of digestive enzymes into the soil
B)Growing on the surface of another organism in a commensal form of symbiosis
C)Using another organism to help distribute spores
D)Forming intracellular associations with plant roots
E)Fusing plasma membranes with another organism for nutrient exchange
Geneticists have studied ascomycetes to try to understand meiosis and for gene mapping. They also can create YACs through biotechnology manipulation for cloning large pieces of DNA. What is a YAC? (p. 611)
A)It is a Yeast Artificial Chromosome which can be subjected to genome sequencing.
B)This stands for Yellow Ascus Carrier after a line that accepts foreign DNA readily.
C)It is a timeline for budding and stands for Yearly / Annual Checkpoint.
D)The acronym stands for Yeast Accessory Clone, and refers to synthetic zygotes used for rapid propagation.
E)There is a hybrid line which fruits annually and is called the Yearly Ascus Conditioned line. The large spores it produces are easy to study.
The difference between the primary mycelium and secondary mycelium is (p. 613)
A)the primary mycelium is made of monokaryotic hyphae while the secondary consists of a dikaryotic mycelium.
B)the secondary mycelium is made of monokaryotic hyphae while the primary consists of a dikaryotic mycelium.
C)there is lignification of cell walls in a secondary but not a primary mycelium.
D)the mycelium is called "primary" if it's in its first year of growth, and "secondary" any time after the first year.
E)cells which give rise to spores are called "secondary", and vegetative cells of a mycelium are called "primary".
How do deuteromycetes engage in genetic recombination? (p. 613)
A)Sperm with flagella can migrate to the gills of these fungi, seeking out the oocyte and fusing with it.
B)Hyphae can fuse with each other, allowing their nuclei to fuse and undergo meiosis.
C)Parasexual recombination occurs when hyphae fuse but recombination includes only the exchange of portions of chromosomes rather than fusion and meiosis.
D)All of the above have been observed in deuteromycetes.
E)This is a trick question: deuteromycetes cannot exchange genetic information.
Lichens are most often combinations of an ascomycete and a(n) (p. 615)
D)b and c only
E)all of the above
An emerging infectious disease of amphibians which affects their skin and leaves flask-like lesions is called (p. 618)
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