Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 47: The Musculoskeletal System

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 47
  • Understand how vertebrate cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems and give examples of each.
  • Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue.
  • Indicate the two classes and three subdivisions into which epithelial tissue is divided and give examples of each.
  • Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands.
  • Understand the composition and function of loose versus dense connective tissue.
  • Describe the specialized connective tissues.
  • Explain how cartilage and bone are related and the structural advantages of each.
  • Understand the basic structure of bone tissue and how it is formed.
  • Describe and characterize the cellular and non-cellular components of blood.
  • List 2 similarities of all connective tissue types.
  • Differentiate among smooth, striated, and cardiac muscle in terms of derivation, location, and initiation of contraction.
  • Understand the functional specialization of nervous tissue and how it relates to the anatomy of an individual neuron.
  • Characterize the three different kinds of animal skeletons.
  • Identify the primary components of the axial and appendicular skeletons.
  • Know the three types of joints and give an example of each.
  • Differentiate between synergistic and antagonistic sets of muscles.
  • Understand the microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle and how it results in movement in the vertebrates.
  • Explain the molecular aspects of muscle contraction as it relates to myofilaments, actin, and myosin.
  • Understand the effects of calcium on muscle contraction.
  • Understand how the nervous and muscular systems interact to produce movement.
  • Understand how twitch, summation, and tetanus affect forceful muscle contractions.
  • Compare slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers.
  • Differentiate among skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissue with respect to form and function.
  • Compare locomotion of animals through water, over land, and in the air.
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