Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)
The Musculoskeletal System
Learning OutcomesChapter 47
- Understand how vertebrate cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems and give examples of each.
- Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue.
- Indicate the two classes and three subdivisions into which epithelial tissue is divided and give examples of each.
- Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands.
- Understand the composition and function of loose versus dense connective tissue.
- Describe the specialized connective tissues.
- Explain how cartilage and bone are related and the structural advantages of each.
- Understand the basic structure of bone tissue and how it is formed.
- Describe and characterize the cellular and non-cellular components of blood.
- List 2 similarities of all connective tissue types.
- Differentiate among smooth, striated, and cardiac muscle in terms of derivation, location, and initiation of contraction.
- Understand the functional specialization of nervous tissue and how it relates to the anatomy of an individual neuron.
- Characterize the three different kinds of animal skeletons.
- Identify the primary components of the axial and appendicular skeletons.
- Know the three types of joints and give an example of each.
- Differentiate between synergistic and antagonistic sets of muscles.
- Understand the microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle and how it results in movement in the vertebrates.
- Explain the molecular aspects of muscle contraction as it relates to myofilaments, actin, and myosin.
- Understand the effects of calcium on muscle contraction.
- Understand how the nervous and muscular systems interact to produce movement.
- Understand how twitch, summation, and tetanus affect forceful muscle contractions.
- Compare slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers.
- Differentiate among skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissue with respect to form and function.
- Compare locomotion of animals through water, over land, and in the air.