Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 51: The Immune System

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 51
  • Explain the three levels of vertebrate immunological defense including how skin prevents invasion by microbes.
  • Describe the three kinds of cells that kill invading microorganisms.
  • Compare how the complement and interferon systems augment other immunological defenses.
  • Know how the inflammatory response helps to fight infection.
  • Differentiate among the four primary types of T cells and know their involvement in the cell-mediated immune response.
  • Understand the role of MHC proteins in T cell function.
  • Understand the primary events of the humoral immune response.
  • Describe the structure of B cell and T cell receptors.
  • Understand how clonal selection prepares a body to fight off future invaders more efficiently.
  • Know the result of loss of immunological tolerance.
  • Understand the reactions associated with ABO and Rh blood typing.
  • Compare how invertebrates and vertebrates recognize foreign tissue and indicate the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
  • Describe the three ways in which the AIDS virus interferes with the immune response.
  • Explain antigen shifting and how it is associated with man’s failure to develop vaccines against diseases like malaria.
  • Compare immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
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