Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 56: Community Ecology

Learning Outcomes

Chapter 56
  • Describe the concept of a biological community and be able to cite several examples.
  • Distinguish between individualistic concept of community and the holistic concept of community.
  • Explain how an organism’s fundamantal niche differs from its realized niche and the importance of both fit into the organism’s habitat.
  • Describe the effects of interspecific competition and how it can leads to competitive exclusion or species adaptation.
  • Understand how predation affects prey population and ultimately evolution.
  • Understand the principle of competitive exclusion and how there can be niche overlap where both species coexist.
  • Explain how character displacement can alleviate competition.
  • Understand the process of co-evolution and its advantages to both participants.
  • Describe how an introduced species or elimination of a predator can perturb predator-prey cycles.
  • Be able to cite examples of the co-evolutionary arms race.
  • Describe the various ways in which plants defend themselves against being consumed by herbivores.
  • Explain how some animals use plant secondary compounds in their own defense from predators.
  • Differentiate between cryptic and aposematic coloration in terms of appearance, social habits, and selective advantages to other organisms.
  • Differentiate between Batesian and Muellerian mimicry and give examples of each.
  • Give examples of the various forms of symbiotic relationships and identify the category into which each should be placed.
  • Explain how a parasite can manipulate its host behavior.
  • Understand why it is difficult to differentiate between commensalism and mutualism, even though they are clearly different from one another by definition.
  • Describe the intricacies of a parasitic relationship.
  • Describe and give examples of the importance of a keystone species.
  • Differentiate between primary and secondary succession and give examples of each.
  • Describe how animals assemblages change in synchrony as vegetation changes during succession.
  • Explain how a disturbance, either locally or widespread, can affect stability in a community.
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