Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)
Dynamics of Ecosystems
Learning OutcomesChapter 57
- Understand the nature of an ecosystem.
- Discuss the five primary biogeochemical cycles, including the reservoirs and unique organisms upon which each cycle depends.
- Explain the difference in nutrient cycling and energy flowing through an ecosystem.
- Discuss the effects of deforestation on the water cycle, flood control, and overall fertility.
- Understand the relationship of one trophic level with another in terms of energy and biomass.
- Differentiate between gross and net productivity and explain how each is related to biomass.
- Compare the overall productivity of each of the major ecosystems to one another.
- Explain why algal beds and coral reefs have a larger NPP per unit area than do tropical rain forests.
- Identify the components of a general food chain. With the exception of deep ocean vents, explain why an autotroph is absolutely required to be in the first “trophic link” in a food chain.
- Explain what an ecological pyramid is and what different shapes indicate.
- Understand how trophic cascades and bottom-up effects influence populations at other trophic levels and how the two effects interact.
- Compare species richness and species diversity and the factors that promote each.
- Understand the importance of the equilibrium model in island biogeography.
- Be able to explain the graphs that are used to illustrate the island biogeography mode