Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 57: Dynamics of Ecosystems

Pre Test

Consider the biogeochemical cycle of water. Since it is a compound and not an element, what two processes should be in approximate balance to give a relatively constant amount of water in the biosphere? (p .1191 )
C)cellular respiration/photosynthesis
Why is some energy always lost as it passes through the various trophic levels (e.g. Primary producer -> Herbivore -> Carnivore)? (p. 1198)
A)The digestion of food requires energy.
B)Not all of the food consumed is digested.
C)both a and b
D)Chemical reactions produce heat that cannot be used.
Algal biomass was monitored in an experiment where trout were either excluded or included in enclosures in a stream. What would you predict the algal biomass to be? (p 1202)
A)the same in both
B)greater without trout
C)greater with trout
D)impossible to predict
Tropical regions have greater biodiversity than temperate regions. What hypothesis could account for this? (p. 1207)
A)Tropics have greater overall productivity due to more solar energy.
B)Tropics have more stable conditions.
C)Tropics have more intense predation leading to less competition.
D)Tropics have many complex microhabitats.
E)All are plausible.
The principle of island biogeography is that the species richness of an island results from: (p. 1208)
A)the size of the island.
B)the equilibrium between extinction and colonization.
C)the distance of the island from the mainland.
D)the type of organism.
E)the latitude of the island.
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