Biology, Eighth Edition (Raven)

Chapter 23: Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution

HIV Replication

How can HIV remain dormant for years and still replicate? HIV is a retro virus. It contains RNA that is reverse transcribed to DNA. This DNA is then incorporated into the host cell. For long periods the viral DNA can remain inactive and simply get passed on to daughter cells with the host cell genome. No disease symptoms will be shown because the viral DNA is not producing anything. When the HIV DNA is activated it will begin to produce components of the virus. At this point disease symptoms will begin as the infected cells of immune system will be damaged or destroyed by the production of new viruses.

View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.


Which viral receptor is involved in HIV attachment to the host cell?
E)all of the above

In order for HIV to attach, the host cell must have
A)a CD4 antigen receptor and a cell specific co-receptor
B)a gp120 receptor
C)a CD4 receptor and a nonspecific universal receptor
D)a CD8 receptor and a specific co-receptor

Protease enzyme
A)makes DNA from single-stranded RNA
B)integrates viral DNA into host genome
C)cleaves poly-protein into individual functional viral proteins
D)helps the virus attach to the host cell

HIV core contains gp120 and gp41.

When viral DNA is integrated into the host cell chromosome, it is called proviral DNA or a provirus.
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